- BY Dr. Rajeev's Clinic
Dyslipidemia is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Causes may be primary (genetic) or secondary. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma levels of total cholesterol, TGs, and individual lipoproteins. Treatment involves dietary changes, exercise, and lipid-lowering drugs.
There is no natural cutoff between normal and abnormal lipid levels because lipid measurements are continuous. A linear relation probably exists between lipid levels and cardiovascular risk, so many people with “normal” cholesterol levels benefit from achieving still lower levels. Therefore, there are no proper definitions of dyslipidemia; the term is applied to lipid levels for which treatment has proven beneficial. Proof of benefit is strongest for lowering elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels.
PRIMARY CAUSES –
Secondary causes contribute to many cases of dyslipidemia in adults.
The most important secondary cause of dyslipidemia in high-resource countries is
A sedentary lifestyle with excessive dietary intake of total calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fats, Trans fats are polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids to which hydrogen atoms have been added; they are used in some processed foods and are as atherogenic as saturated fat.
COMMON SECONDARY CAUSES OF DYSLIPIDEMIA INCLUDE:
- Diabetes mellitus
- Chronic kidney disease
- Alcohol overuse
- Primary biliary cirrhosis and other cholestatic liver diseases
Elevated lipid levels are a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thus can lead to symptomatic coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial disease.
Diagnose using serum lipid profile (measured total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and calculated low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL])