Dermographism is a variety of urticaria which literally means writing on the skin. In a majority of normal individuals when the skin is stroked firmly with a blunt object, it results in the triple response of 'Lewis'. However, some patients develop urticarial wheal even on a light stroke on their skin. The lesions in such cases corresponds to the stroked area and the impression is usually linear in shape. Other causes of urticaria include viral and fungal infections, auto-immune and malignant diseases.
In each and every case of urticaria, a detailed history is very important in an attempt to trace the cause. Urticaria due to food may occur regularly after one or each meal and frequency may vary from one or two attacks in a week to several attacks in a day. When the urticaria is suspected to be due to a specific food item, it can be confirmed by disappearance of urticaria within 48 hours after stoppage of the causative food (diet elimination test) or by giving a particular food and recurrence of urticaria. This is known as provocation test. The easiest way to treat food urticaria is to stop eating the particular offending item of food in all its forms. Urticaria due to inhalants may be seasonal or throughout the year. However, it improves spontaneously when the patients goes to other places where the particular antigen is absent or its amount is less. It can be confirmed by breathing through an ordinary cloth mask for 48 hours to see if the urticaria disappears. Stool examination for presence of parasites or their cysts confirm their presence in the gastro-intestinal tract. Urticaria due to cold can be confirmed by appearance of urticaria on the skin of these patient by cryo- stimulation test or by ice-filled test tube. In cholinergic urticaria there is an exaggerated response to intradermal carbachol or to exercise. When urticaria is due to the physical agents like cold, heat, sunlight, pressure or friction, it is better to avoid the causative agent as far as due to drugs is usually of short duration.
Homoeopathic treatment for demographism is very much effective without any side effects. Few important homoeopathic medicine based on the treatment of demographism has shown great result.