Wolfram syndrome is a condition that affects many of the body's systems. The hallmark features of Wolfram syndrome are high blood sugar levels resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin (a condition called diabetes mellitus) and progressive vision loss due to degeneration of the nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain (a condition called optic atrophy). People with Wolfram syndrome often also have pituitary gland dysfunction that results in excess urine production (a condition called diabetes insipidus), hearing loss caused by changes in the inner ear (sensorineural deafness), urinary tract problems, reduced amounts of the sex hormone testosterone in males (hypogonadism), or neurological or psychiatric disorders.
Diabetes mellitus is typically the first symptom of Wolfram syndrome, usually diagnosed around age 6. Nearly everyone with Wolfram syndrome who develops diabetes mellitus requires insulin replacement therapy. Optic atrophy is often the next symptom to appear, usually around age 11. The first signs of optic atrophy are loss of color vision and side (peripheral) vision. Over time, the vision problems get worse, and people with optic atrophy are usually blind within approximately 8 years after signs of optic atrophy first begin.
In diabetes insipidus, the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain, does not function normally. This abnormality disrupts the release of a hormone called vasopressin, which helps control the body's water balance and urine production. Approximately 70 percent of people with Wolfram syndrome have diabetes insipidus. Pituitary gland dysfunction can also cause hypogonadism in males. The lack of testosterone that occurs with hypogonadism affects growth and sexual development. About 65 percent of people with Wolfram syndrome have sensorineural deafness that can range in severity from deafness beginning at birth to mild hearing loss beginning in adolescence that worsens over time. Sixty to 90 percent of people with Wolfram syndrome have a urinary tract problem. Urinary tract problems include obstruction of the ducts between the kidneys and bladder (ureters), a large bladder that cannot empty normally (high-capacity atonal bladder), disrupted urination (bladder sphincter dyssynergia), and difficulty controlling the flow of urine (incontinence).
About 60 percent of people with Wolfram syndrome develop a neurological or psychiatric disorder, most commonly problems with balance and coordination (ataxia), typically beginning in early adulthood. Other neurological problems experienced by people with Wolfram syndrome include irregular breathing caused by the brain's inability to control breathing (central apnea), loss of the sense of smell (anosmia), loss of the gag reflex, muscle spasms (myoclonus), seizures, reduced sensation in the lower extremities (peripheral neuropathy), and intellectual impairment. Psychiatric disorders associated with Wolfram syndrome include psychosis, episodes of severe depression, and impulsive and aggressive behavior.
There are two types of Wolfram syndrome with many overlapping features. The two types are differentiated by their genetic cause. In addition to the usual features of Wolfram syndrome type 1 (described above), individuals with Wolfram syndrome type 2 have stomach or intestinal ulcers and excessive bleeding after an injury. The tendency to bleed excessively combined with the ulcers typically leads to abnormal bleeding in the gastrointestinal system. People with Wolfram syndrome type 2 do not develop diabetes insipidus.
Historically, Wolfram syndrome was fatal by mid-adulthood due to complications from the many features of the condition, such as health problems related to diabetes mellitus or neurological problems. However, with better diagnosis and management, life expectancy has risen.
Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world. It strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When is concerned there are many effective medicines available in Homoeopathy , but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient , considering mental and physical symptoms
Few homoeopathic medicine can be thought of in the treatment of Wolfram syndrome are:
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