It is the accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of eye following trauma. Trauma is the most common cause of hyphaema. Traumatic hyphaema may occur following both blunt and penetrating injuries. A ruptured iris blood vessel generally causes bleeding. Hyphaema may affect vision by blocking the visual axis. Hyphaema may also be a sign of associated damage to intraocular tissues. Damage to intraocular tissues may be the cause of poor vision in spite of resolution of hyphaema.
The anterior chamber is the area bounded by the cornea anteriorly, the angle laterally, and the lens and iris posteriorly. This space normally contains clear, aqueous humor, which is produced by the ciliary body and drained through the Canal of Schlemm. A hyphema is usually painful. If left untreated, it can cause permanent vision problems.
Traumatic hyphaema predominantly affect males in the age group below twenty years
Following conditions may produce spontaneous Hyphaema
The grades are:
BOTHROPS - blindness from hemorrhage into retina. Hemoralopia, day blindness, can hardly see her way after sunrise, conjunctivial hemorrhage.
PHOSPHORUS- Thrombosis of retinal vessels and degenerative changes in retinal cells. Blood extravasations;
ARNICA- retinal hemorrhage. Bruised, sore feeling in eyes after close work. Must keep eyes open. Dizzy on closing them. Feel tired and weary after sight-seeing
HAMAMELIS- Painful weakness, sore pain in eyes, bloodshot appearance, inflamed vessels greatly injected. Hastens absorption of intraocular hemorrhage.
LACHESIS- Defective vision after diphtheria, extrinsic muscles too weak to maintain focus. Sensation as if eyes were drawn together by cords which were tied in a knot at root of nose.