The infection is caused by Clostridium tetani and the portal of entry is through the umbilical cord. The features are evident within 5–15 days after birth.


The striking features are:

  • Inability to suck
  • marked trismus
  • rigidity of the body
  • opisthotonus
  • pyrexia 
  • convulsions

PREVENTION includes immunization of the mother during pregnancy with tetanus toxoid. Babies born in unhygienic conditions without previous immunization of the mother, should be given 1,500 IU of antitetanus serum intramuscularly soon after birth.

COMPLICATION of tetanus infection may include:

  • Broken bones. The severity of spasms may cause the spine and other bones to break.
  • Blockage of a lung artery (pulmonary embolism). A blood clot that has traveled from elsewhere in your body can block the main artery of the lung or one of its branches.
  • Severe tetanus-induced (tetanic) muscle spasms can interfere with or stop your breathing. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Lack of oxygen may also induce cardiac arrest and death. Pneumonia is another cause of death.


Nux vomica is best for epilepsy which is worse from anger, touch, emotion, moving, indigestion. There is convulsions with titanic rigidity, red face, opisthotonos, and closed eyes.Involuntary urination and defecation in fit. Deep sleep follows the attack. Worse in open air.

Cicuta virosa is one of the excellent remedies for tetanus. Cicuta is best for violent convulsions. There is sudden rigidity followed by jerks and violent distortions, oppression of breathing, lock jaw, face dark red, frothing at the mouth with opisthotonos and great prostration after the attack. Fearful distortion of eyes. Fingers clenched. The head, neck and spine bend backwards like an arch. There is moaning and howling. The fit is worse by slightest touch or jar .Convulsions from head injury.

Hydrocyanicum acid –This is a homeopathic remedy which is best to treat tetanus. It produces a persistent tonic spasm from its direct action on the spinal cord. It shows itself in the muscles of the face, jaws and back. There is trismus or locked jaw, risus sardonicus and impeded respiration, with lividity and frothing at the mouth; the rigidity is firm, the body is bent backwards, the attack is sudden.

Arsenicum: Tetanic spasms, with frightful concussion of limbs; babe lies as if dead, pale but warm, breathless for some time, features distorted; stiffness of limbs, particularly of feet and knees; skin dry like parchment.

Belladonna: Trismus with sudden starting and drawing together of body and limbs; anxious spasmodic respiration; motionless staring eyes; inability to swallow; followed by spasms.