NOMENCLATURE: -Landsteiner and Weiner in the year 1940, discovered specific unknown antigen in the human red cells. As it was also present in the Rhesus monkeys, the antigen was named Rh. The individual having the antigen is called Rh-positive and in whom it is not present, is called Rh-negative.

INCIDENCE: The incidence of Rh-negative in the European and American whites, is about 15–17%; it is very much insignificant in China (1%) and almost nil in Japan. About 60% of Rh-positive men are heterozygous and 40% are homozygous at the D locus. Overall a Rh-negative woman having the chance of Rh-positive fetus is 60%, irrespective of the father’s genotype. In India, the incidence is about 5–10% (South India – 5%, North India – 10%) in hospital statistics.Uploaded Image

GENOTYPES: All pregnant patients should have ABO–Rh group and typing and also have serum antibody testing at the first antenatal visit. The complete genetic makeup of the Rh blood group of an individual is its genotype. Because of lack of proper antisera against anti-e, anti-c and anti-k the D antigen is the most potent and accounts for almost all damages (95%) due to Rh blood groups, its presence or absence denotes an individual to be Rhpositive or Rh-negative respectively. An individual carrying D on both sets of antigens (DD) is called homozygous.


1) Cal phos:- this remedy can help to strengthen a woman who tends toward easy tiredness, poor digestion, cold hands and feet, and poor absorption of nutrients. A person who needs Cal phos is often irritable because of tiredness, and may long for a travel or a change of circumstances.

2) Caulophyllum:- this remedy may be helpful in women with weak muscle tone in the uterus. A history of irregular periods, slow and difficult labour with previous deliveries, or weakness of the cervix may bring this remedy to mind. She typically feels nervous, shaky, and trembling.

3) Carbo Veg:- this remedy can be helpful to a woman who feels weak and faints during pregnancy, with poor circulation, a general feeling of coldness, and a craving for fresh or moving air. She may also have frequent digestive upsets with burning pain and a tendency to belch.

4) Actaea racemosa:- this remedy can be helpful to women who are nervous and talkative,with a tendency to feel fearful and gloomy during pregnancy. They may become overagitated and a dear of miscarriage prevails.

5) Ferrum phos:- this remedy can be helpful for nervous sensitive women who feel weak or tired with easy flushing of face and a tendency towards anaemia. A woman who needs this remedy often has a slender build and may develop frequent neck and shoulder stiffness.