The word parasomnia literally means around sleep, and refers to undesirable, abnormal skeletal muscle activity, behaviors, or emotional–perceptual events that occur during sleep.
Parasomnias may happen at sleep onset, during sleep, during transition between stages of sleep, or when going from sleep to wakefulness.
Parasomnias often cause psychological distress.
There are a variety of different approaches to classifying parasomnias. The ICSD-2 uses the stage of sleep in which the experience occurs, but it is much simpler to consider parasomnias in two categories:
The main types of parasomnias are outlined in Table 28.8. Assessment Polysomnography with audio-visual recording is the gold standard diagnostic tool. It picks up abnormal motor and brain activity during sleep, which can be linked to motor activities and behaviour seen on the video.
The main symptoms of sleep-talking includes:
HYOSCYAMUS NIGER: Confess themselves loudly during sleep. Laugh during sleep. Child sobs and cries in sleep without waking. Sleep with convulsions and involuntary movements of limbs.
KALI CARBONICUM: Drowsy after eating. Falls asleep while eating. Talks in sleep. Awakes at about 2 a.m. to 4 a.m. with nearly all complaints. Yawns with headache.
LACHESIS: Children toss about moaning in sleep. Sudden startling when falling to asleep. Frightful dreams of snake. Sleeps into aggravation.
NUX VOMICA: Weeping and talking during sleep. Cannot sleep after 3 a.m. until towards morning. Nightmares. Dreams, anxious, pursued by animals, dogs, and cats, amorous. Ailments from too much of mental strain, over study, drug abuse, over use of stimulants like tea, coffee, and alcohol.
PULSATILLA NIGRICANS: Lies with hands over head or crossed on abdomen and feet drawn up. Chattering in sleep. Talks, whines, or screams during sleep. Restless. Tosses. Dreams confused, frightful.