Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are injuries or disorders of the muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, cartilage, and spinal discs. It include

  • Tendinitis
  • Carpal tunnel syndromeUploaded Image
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Bone fractures
  • MSDs are common. And your risk of developing them increases with age.


  • Recurrent pain
  • Joint Stiffness
  • Swelling
  • Dull aches

They can affect any major area of our musculoskeletal system, including the following:

  • Neck
  • Shoulders
  • Wrists
  • Back
  • Hips
  • Legs
  • Knees
  • Feet

In some cases, the symptoms of MSDs interfere with everyday activities like walking or typing. One may develop a limited range of motion or have trouble completing routine tasks.


Most work-related MSDs develop over time. There is usually no single cause of MSDs; various risk factors often work in combination, including physical and biomechanical factors, organisational and psychosocial factors, and individual factors.

Physical and biomechanical risk factors may include:

  • Handling loads, especially when bending and twisting
  • Repetitive or forceful movements
  • Awkward and static postures
  • Vibration, poor lighting or cold working environments
  • Fast-paced work
  • Prolonged sitting or standing in the same position

Organisational and psychosocial risk factors may include:

  • High work demands and low autonomy
  • Lack of breaks or opportunities to change working postures
  • Working at high speed, including as a consequence of introducing new technologies
  • Working long hours or on shifts
  • Bullying, harassment and discrimination in the workplace
  • Low job satisfaction

In general, all psychosocial and organisational factors (especially when combined with physical risks) that may lead to stress, fatigue, anxiety or other reactions, which in turn raise the risk of MSDs.

Individual risk factors may include:

  • Prior medical history
  • Physical capacity
  • Lifestyle and habits (e.g. smoking, lack of exercise)


  • Age
  • Occupation
  • Activity level
  • Lifestyle
  • Family history

Certain activities can cause wear and tear on our musculoskeletal system, leading to MSDs. These include:

  • Sitting in the same position at a computer every day
  • Engaging in repetitive motions
  • Lifting heavy weights
  • Maintaining poor posture at work


Treatment plan will vary depending on the cause of symptoms. So it Is important to get an accurate diagnosis.

On physical examination there will be

  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Muscle weakness
  • Muscle atrophy
  • They may also test your reflexes. Unusual reflexes may indicate nerve damage.

Some imaging tests,


MRI scans.

Blood tests to check for rheumatic diseases, such as RA.


Risk of developing MSDs increases with age.Our muscles, bones, and joints naturally deteriorate as one get older. But that doesn’t mean that MSDs are inevitable. By taking care of our body throughout adulthood,one can lower their risk of developing these disorders.

Regular strengthening exercises and stretching can help keep our bones, joints, and muscles strong. It is also important to complete everyday activities in safe ways. Maintain a tall posture to prevent back pain, be careful when picking up heavy objects, and try to keep repetitive motions to a minimum.


KALI IOD : Useful for rheumatism of Knee with effusion in joint with huge swelling of Knee.Useful for pain which aggravate by motion & open air.

CALCAREA CARB : Useful for osteoarthritis of knee joint especially in fat and obese persons.There is pain when getting up from a sitting position,by walking & Cold.There is cold,clammy knees.Useful when there is cramps in calves when stretching out the legs at night.Suited to that patient who have a special craving for eggs and undigestable things.

SULPHUR : Useful for musculoskeletal disorder with inflammation,Swelling, hot sensation, Redness and redness of joint.Useful for painful joint.Also given when therre is loss of functions of affected joint.Helpful to absorb the effusions from joint.

BENZOIC ACID : Useful for arthritis of Knee joints with cracking sound on walking.There is tearing, stitching type of pain.Useful for swollen knee with redness which increases at night, motion.

GUAIACUM : Useful for swollen knee with much stiffness.There is hot sensation in knee area.Useful for pain by Pressure.

BRYONIA ALBA : Useful for stiffness in knee.There is painful, swollen ,red & hot joint.There is stitching,tearing type of pain which increase by pressure & rest.

RL - 35