Are a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the mitochondria, which are the powerhouses of the cells responsible for generating energy.


These disorders result from mutations in the genes involved in mitochondrial function and can affect various organs and tissues, including the muscles.


There are several subtypes of mitochondrial myopathies, including:

  1. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS): KSS typically presents in childhood and is characterized by symptoms such as muscle weakness, progressive external ophthalmoplegia (weakness or paralysis of eye muscles), heart conduction abnormalities, and pigmentary retinopathy (abnormalities in the retina).
  2. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS): MELAS is characterized by stroke-like episodes, seizures, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis (build-up of lactic acid in the body).
  3. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS): MERRF is characterized by myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks), seizures, muscle weakness, ataxia (lack of muscle coordination), and lactic acidosis.
  4. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO): CPEO is characterized by weakness or paralysis of the eye muscles, causing difficulty with eye movements and drooping eyelids.


Mitochondrial myopathies primarily affect the muscles and can cause symptoms such as muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, fatigue, muscle pain, atrophy (muscle wasting), and difficulty with coordination and balance. Other organs, such as the heart, brain, eyes, and gastrointestinal system, can also be affected, leading to a wide range of additional symptoms.


Diagnosing mitochondrial myopathies involves:

  • A combination of clinical evaluation.
  • Muscle biopsy.
  • Genetic testing.
  • Specialized tests to assess mitochondrial function, such as lactate and pyruvate levels in blood and muscle.


  1. CHINA OFFICINALIS: China officinalis (also known as Cinchona) is used when weakness is accompanied by exhaustion, sensitivity to touch, and loss of bodily fluids. It may be considered for weakness resulting from a prolonged illness, loss of blood, or excessive physical exertion.
  2. KALI PHOSPHORICUM: Kali phosphoricum is used for weakness associated with mental and physical exhaustion. It may be helpful for fatigue and weakness resulting from stress, overwork, or prolonged mental exertion.
  3. SELENIUM: Selenium is sometimes used for weakness, particularly in the muscles of the thighs and legs. It may be considered for weakness and fatigue that is worse in the morning and improves with movement or exercise.
  4. CONIUM MACULATUM: Conium maculatum is used when muscle weakness is accompanied by trembling, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination. It may be considered for weakness in the elderly or those with a history of head injuries.