HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is so common that 80% of sexually active unvaccinated people get the virus at some point in their life.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of viruses that is common throughout the world. HPV is one of the causative agents in the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and women with and without clinical lesions a. HPV is transmitted through sexual contact and is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract.

The main burden of HPV-related disease is due to cervical cancer. HPV infection is a well-established cause of cervical cancer and a relevant factor in other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. HPV is also responsible for other diseases such as recurrent juvenile respiratory papillomatosis and genital warts in men and women. Genital warts are very common and highly infectious.

Mode of transmission –

HPV is mainly transmitted through sexual contact and most people are infected with HPV shortly after the onset of sexual activity. Skin-to-skin genital contact can transmit the infection; penetrative sex is not required for transmission.

Risk factors :

  • Early first sexual intercourse
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • High parity
  • Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives
  • Tobacco use
  • Immune suppression (for example, HIV-infected individuals are at higher risk of HPV infection and are infected by a broader range of HPV types)
  • Low socioeconomic status, poor hygiene and diet low in antioxidants
  • Co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes simplex virus type-2


Most of the HPV infections cause no symptoms and subsides spontaneously by body’s immune system. More than 90% of infections are cleared within two years. However persistent genital HPV infection (HPV types 16 and 18) can cause precancerous lesions in the cervix.

  • Warts caused by HPV appear after an incubation period of 1 to 6 months.


  • Visible anogenital warts are usually soft, moist, minute pink or gray polyps (raised lesions) that
  • Enlarge
  • May become pedunculated
  • Have rough surfaces
  • May occur in clusters
  • The warts are usually asymptomatic, but some patients have itching, burning, or discomfort.
  • In men, warts occur most commonly under the foreskin, on the coronal sulcus, within the urethral meatus, and on the penile shaft. They may occur around the anus and in the rectum.


  • irregular, intermenstrual (between periods) or abnormal vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse or bleeding after menopause;
  • vaginal discomfort or odourous discharge from vagina, the discharge may contain some blood and may occur between periods or after menopause;
  • Pain during sex;
  • back, leg or pelvic pain;
  • fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite;
  • a single swollen leg.

More severe symptoms may develop at advanced stages of cervical cancer.

Non-cancer causing types of HPV (especially types 6 and 11) can cause genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis (a disease in which tumours grow in the air passages leading from the nose and mouth into the lungs). Although these conditions very rarely result in death, they may cause significant occurrence of disease. Genital warts are very common and highly infectious.


  • Physical examination
  • HPV testing
  • Cervical, and sometimes anal, cytology (Pap test)
  • Serology test for syphilis.


  • cervical cancer,  
  • other anogenital cancers( anus, vulva, vagina and penis),
  • head and neck cancers,
  • recurrent juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, 
  • genital warts.


Thuja- Vagina very sensitive. Warty excrescences on vulva and perineum. Profuse leucorrhœa; thick, greenish. Severe pain in left ovary and left inguinal region, Gonorrhœa. Chronic induration of testicles. Pain and burning felt near neck of bladder, with frequent and urgent desire to urinate. Prostatic enlargement, condylomate, warty excrescences, spongy tumors is very important. Moist mucous tubercles.

Causticum-  Burning, rawness, and soreness are characteristic. Warts large, jagged, bleeding easily,

Dulcamara- Warts, large, smooth, Cutting pain about navel. Swelling of inguinal glands (Merc).

Natrum Sulph - Feels every change from dry to wet; Tendency to warts. Leucorrhśa yellowish-green, following gonorrhśa in female. Leucorrhśa with hoarseness. Sycotic excrescences; wart-like red lumps all over body.

Nitric Acid- Hydrogenoid constitution. Sycotic remedy. Soreness and burning in glans and beneath prepuce. Ulcers; burn and sting; exude, offensive matter. Hair on genitals falls out

Merc Sol - sensation of rawness in parts. Stinging pain in ovaries (Apis). Itching and burning; worse, after urinating; better, washing with cold water.