A Gartner's duct cyst (sometimes incorrectly referred to as vaginal inclusion cyst) is a benign vaginal cyst that originates from the Gartner's duct, which is a vestigial remnant of the mesonephric duct (wolffian duct) in females.They are typically small asymptomatic cysts that occur along the lateral walls of the vagina, following the course of the duct. They can present in adolescence with painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea) or difficulty inserting a tampon. They can also enlarge to substantial proportions and be mistaken for urethral diverticulum or cystocele. In some rare instances, they can be congenital.
There is a small association between Gartner's duct cysts and metanephric urinary anomalies, such as ectopic ureter and ipsilateral renal hypoplasia.
infections, bladder dysfunction, abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and urinary incontinence. The size of the cyst is usually less than 2 cm. On T2-weighted imaging, it manifests as hyperintense signal as most of its contents are fluid in nature. If the contents of the cyst are blood or protenanous, it will show high T1 signal and low T2 signal.
GDCs arise from remnants of the mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) that do not regress successfully during the development of the reproductive and urinary systems. The mesonephric duct refers to an embryonic structure that exists in all embryos but is maintained only by the presence of increased testosterone in order to form the testicles, epididymis, and prostate in embryos with XY chromosomes. Occasionally, parts of the duct may remain in embryos with XX chromosomes, which may later present with GDCs.
Generally, Gartner duct cysts are small, usually less than 2 cm, and asymptomatic. However, some cysts may enlarge and cause mild symptoms, such as mild discomfort in the lower abdomen (e.g., vaginal pressure, pelvic pain), dyspareunia (i.e., painful intercourse), and loss of control of urination or defecation. In rare cases with large cysts, difficulties during vaginal delivery have been described.
Notably, Gartner duct cysts are typically associated with congenital malformations of the urinary tract, such as ipsilateral renal agenesis, or the absence of the kidney on one side; renal dysplasia, or the atypical development of the kidney; urethral diverticulum, or the formation of pockets along the urethra; and ectopic ureter, a ureter that does not connect to the bladder and drains to a different site.
There is a great scope of treating cases of cyst in homoeopathy.
Silicea:- Its use is highly recommended for dissolving cysts. It is effective for dissolving Gartner Cyst. Its a marvelous medicine to manage conditions with pus formation. It helps in clearing the pus discharges that can be foul smelling.
Hepar sulph:- For managing cysts with pus discharge. There is a pus discharge that can be offensive in nature. The discharge may also be blood stained. In the cyst there may be pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to touch the lump. Pain is throbbing and splinter like.
Apis Mel:- For using this medicine the pain in Ovaries is there. The pain is mainly burning, stinging, it may also be sharp cutting type. The pain may extend from ovaries down to the thighs sometimes.
Calcarea Flour:- Helps in reducing the size of the cysts.
Graphites:- In cases needing it, scanty pus discharge from the cyst may be present.
Sabina:- Well indicated for cysts in vulva in females. The cysts are very sensitive and painful, the pain is tearing type. Pains are worse during rest.