Dental caries is the decay of teeth, characterized by demineralization of inorganic substance and decomposition of organic structures.

Dental caries simply means decay or rotting of the teeth. It is a form of progressive destruction of the enamel, dentine and cementum initiated by microbial activity at the tooth surface.

Dental decay is a chemo parasitic process consisting of two stage 

  • Decalcification of enamel and dentin
  • Dissolution of the softened residue.


There are several risk factors for caries:

  • Inadequate plaque control
  • Dental defects
  • Diet, particularly frequent consumption of dietary carbohydrates and sugars
  • High-acid and/or low-fluoride environment
  • Characteristics of saliva, including reduced salivary flow (eg, due to drugs, radiation therapy, systemic disorders that cause salivary gland dysfunction), and buffering capacity and pH.
  • Hereditary genetic factors

Teeth have open enamel pits, fissures, and grooves, which may extend from the surface to the dentin. These defects may be wide enough to harbor bacteria but too narrow to clean effectively.  They predispose teeth to caries.Frequent dietary exposure to carbohydrates and sugars promotes the growth of plaque-forming bacteria.Tooth surface is more susceptible to caries when it is poorly calcified, has low fluoride exposure, and/or is in an acidic environment.Typically, decalcification begins when the pH at the tooth falls below.


  • Tooth brushing
  • Mouth rinsing
  • Use of dental floss or tooth picks
  • dietary control –  reduced intake of carbohydrate , sucrose substitute and addictive


1.ASAFOITEDA -  Caries of teeth after abuse of mercury with drawing pain in the jaws and copious salivation. 

2.BARYTA CARB - Rapid caries, toothache in decayed tooth before menses or from cold. Toothache worse when thinking about it. 

3.CALCAREA FLUR - Dental caries premature in children. caries of teeth and upper jaw.

4. FLUORIC ACID - Rapid caries of teeth, violent pain at the root of the right eye tooth with frequent discharge of pus. Mouth and teeth coated with mucousmorning.

5.KREOSOTUM-  Rampant caries with periodontitis, spongy and bleeding gums. Rapid caries as soon as the teeth erupt. tooth shows dark spots, begins to decay. premature greying of milk teeth aching and pain in diseased teeth. Bad odour from decayed teeth. 

6.MERCURICUS -  Crown of teeth except incisors decay, teeth feel elongated. toothache in decayed teeth. Drawing stinging pain in whole side of face extending to ears.

7.MEZEREUM -  Caries at roots and sides of teeth while crown remains sound. Rapid caries, sensation as if even the healthy teeth are plucked out of socket. Teeth decay on sides above the gums. 

8.STAPHYSAGRIA - Rapid caries in chlorosis, teeth black and crumbling cavitation submaxillary glands swollen necrosis of teeth. Tearing pain shooting to ears. Teeth decay early in children; cannot be kept clean.

9.SEPIA -  Rapid caries, drawing pain in upper molars extending to ears decay of teeth in clorosis. Taste salty, putrid. Pain in teeth from 6 pm till midnight; worse on lying.

10.SYPHILINUM -  Teeth decay at gum; edges serrated, dwarfed. Tongue coated, teeth-indented; deep longitudinal cracks. Ulcers smart and burn. Excessive flow of saliva; it runs out of mouth when sleeping. 

11.THUJA OCCIDENTALIS - Teeth decay at the roots, crown remain sound, crumble and turn yellow. Toothache from tea drinking.