Is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the body's inability to properly process bilirubin, a waste product formed when red blood cells are broken down. Bilirubin is normally processed by the liver and excreted from the body. In individuals with Crigler-Najjar syndrome, there is a deficiency or absence of the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), which is responsible for conjugating bilirubin and making it water-soluble for excretion.

The syndrome is named after the physicians who first described it: Dr. John F. Crigler Jr. and Dr. Victor A. Najjar. There are two main types of Crigler-Najjar syndrome:


  • Type 1: This is the more severe form of the syndrome. Individuals with Type 1 Crigler-Najjar syndrome have little to no enzyme activity and are at a high risk of developing severe jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) shortly after birth. Without treatment, the accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in the body can lead to brain damage (kernicterus) and early death.
  • Type 2: This is a milder form of the syndrome. People with Type 2 Crigler-Najjar syndrome have some residual enzyme activity, and their symptoms are less severe. Jaundice may develop later in infancy or childhood, and while treatment is still necessary, the risk of kernicterus is lower compared to Type 1.


  • Jaundice
  • Pale Stools
  • Dark Urine
  • Enlarged Liver (Hepatomegaly
  • Kernicterus (Rare, but Severe Complication)


Clinical Assessment and History: The healthcare provider will start by taking a detailed medical history, including any family history of jaundice or liver disorders. They will also perform a thorough physical examination to assess the presence of jaundice and other relevant symptoms.

Blood Tests: Laboratory tests will be conducted to measure bilirubin levels in the blood. In Crigler-Najjar syndrome, unconjugated bilirubin levels are elevated. Other liver function tests may also be performed to assess the overall health of the liver.

Genetic Testing: Genetic testing is a key component of diagnosing Crigler-Najjar syndrome. It involves analyzing the UGT1A1 gene for mutations or variations that lead to reduced or absent activity of the UGT enzyme. Genetic testing can confirm the presence of the syndrome and provide information about the specific type (Type 1 or Type 2).

Liver Imaging: Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, may be performed to assess the size and condition of the liver and other abdominal organs.


  1. Chelidonium Majus (Chel.): This remedy is often indicated for liver and gallbladder disorders, jaundice with pain under the right shoulder blade, and a bitter taste in the mouth. It may be considered for sluggish liver function and digestion.
  2. Carduus Marianus (Card-m.): Commonly used for liver disorders, hepatitis, and a feeling of fullness or discomfort in the liver region. It is also used for conditions arising from alcohol abuse or overindulgence in rich foods.
  3. Lycopodium Clavatum (Lyc.): Lycopodium is indicated for various digestive issues, including liver problems such as fatty liver. It is often used for individuals with bloating, gas, and digestive discomfort.
  4. Nux Vomica (Nux-v.): This remedy is associated with overindulgence, including excessive alcohol, rich foods, and stimulants. It may be considered for individuals with a history of liver stress due to these factors.
  5. Taraxacum Officinale (Tarax.): Also known as dandelion, this remedy is used to support liver function and detoxification. It may be indicated for individuals with a feeling of fullness and discomfort in the liver area.
  6. Bryonia Alba (Bry.): Bryonia is often used for liver congestion, stitching pains in the liver area, and aggravation from motion. It may be considered for individuals with an irritable liver.
  7. Berberis Vulgaris (Berb.): Berberis is associated with kidney and liver complaints. It may be indicated for liver and gallbladder stones, radiating pains, and urinary issues.
  8. Podophyllum Peltatum (Podo.): This remedy is used for liver and bowel complaints, including jaundice, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. It may be considered for conditions involving liver congestion and functional disorders.