Burn injuries are under-appreciated injuries that are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality.

Burn injuries are an under-appreciated trauma that can affect anyone, anytime and anywhere. The injuries can be caused by friction, cold, heat, radiation, chemical or electric sources, but the majority of burn injuries are caused by heat from hot liquids, solids or fire.

 Immediately after injury, the burn wound can be divided into three zones:

  • zone of coagulation (with the most damage in the central portion);
  • zone of stasis or zone of ischaemia (characterized by decreased perfusion that is potentially salvageable);
  • zone of hyperaemia (the outermost region of the wound characterized by increased inflammatory vasodilation)


  • first-degree burns: red, nonblistered skin,minor inflammation, or swelling,pain,dry, peeling skin occurs as the burn heals
  • second-degree burns: blisters and some thickening of the skin,red,sore.
  • Third-degree burns: widespread thickness with a white, leathery appearance.


  • scalding from hot, boiling liquids
  • chemical burns
  • electrical burns
  • fires, including flames from matches, candles, and lighters
  • excessive sun exposure


  • Bacterial infection, which may lead to a bloodstream infection (sepsis)
  • Fluid loss, including low blood volume (hypovolemia)
  • Dangerously low body temperature (hypothermia)
  • Breathing problems from the intake of hot air or smoke
  • Scars or ridged areas caused by an overgrowth of scar tissue (keloids)
  • Bone and joint problems, such as when scar tissue causes the shortening and tightening of skin, muscles or tendons (contractures)


To reduce the risk of common household burns:

  • Never leave items cooking on the stove unattended.
  • Turn pot handles toward the rear of the stove.
  • Don't carry or hold a child while cooking at the stove.
  • Keep hot liquids out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Keep electrical appliances away from water.


CANTHARIS:  burning and itching. Sunburn. Burns, scalds, with rawness and smarting, relieved by cold applications, followed by undue inflammation. Erysipelas, vesicular type, with great restlessness.

URTICA URENS:   Itching blotches. Urticarial, burning heat, with formication; violent itching. Consequences of suppressed nettlerash. Rheumatism alternates with nettle-rash. Burn confined to skin. burning and stinging pains in burnt skin. The skin is intensely red, swollen with burning and stinging pains.

CAUSTICUM:   Burning, rawness, and soreness are characteristic, Old burns that do not get well, and ill effects from burns. Pains of burns. Cicatrices freshen up; old injuries reopen.

CALENDULA:   Pain is excessive and out of all proportion to injury, goose-flesh. Promotes favorable cicatrization, with least amount of suppuration. Slough, proud flesh, and raised edges. Superficial burns and scalds. Erysipelas (use topically).

HEPAR SULPH:  lesions spread by the formation of small papules around the side of the old lesion, Papules prone to suppurate and extend. Suppurate with prickly pain. Easily bleed.

CALCAREA SULPH:  Cuts, wounds, bruises, etc, unhealthy, discharging pus; they do not heal readily. Yellow, purulent crusts or discharge. Purulent exudations in or upon the skin. Skin affections with yellowish scabs.