Also known as Bosma Syndrome, is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the nose (arhinia) and small, underdeveloped eyes (microphthalmia). Individuals with this syndrome may have very limited or no nasal passages, which can lead to breathing and feeding difficulties shortly after birth.


  • Genetic mutations can disrupt the normal processes of tissue and organ development, leading to the characteristic features of BAMS, such as the absence or underdevelopment of the nose (arhinia) and small, underdeveloped eyes (microphthalmia).
  • Research into the specific genetic causes of BAMS was likely ongoing, but the rarity of the syndrome made it challenging to gather comprehensive information about its underlying genetic mechanisms.
  • For the most current and accurate information about the causes of BAMS, I recommend consulting recent medical literature, genetic databases, and speaking with medical professionals who specialize in rare genetic disorders. If there have been any advancements in research since my last update, I wouldn't have that information.


  • Arhinia (Absence of Nose): Individuals with BAMS are born with a complete absence of the nose (arhinia) or a severely underdeveloped nose. This can lead to difficulties in breathing and often requires immediate medical attention and intervention to ensure proper airway management.
  • Microphthalmia (Small Eyes): People with BAMS have small and underdeveloped eyes (microphthalmia), which can lead to visual impairments or blindness.
  • Hypothalamic Anomalies: BAMS may also involve abnormalities in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including hormonal regulation and control of basic functions like sleep, hunger, and temperature regulation.
  • Cleft Palate and Lip: Some individuals with BAMS might have cleft palate and cleft lip, which are openings or splits in the roof of the mouth and the upper lip. These features can contribute to difficulties in feeding and speech development.
  • Limb Abnormalities: In some cases, limb anomalies such as polydactyly (extra fingers or toes) or syndactyly (webbing between fingers or toes) may be present.
  • Other Facial and Cranial Abnormalities: Depending on the severity, individuals with BAMS might have other facial and cranial abnormalities, such as a small jaw (micrognathia) or an underdeveloped skull (microcephaly).
  • Feeding and Breathing Difficulties: Due to the absence of a functional nose and potential associated structural issues, infants with BAMS may experience significant difficulties in feeding and breathing.
  • Developmental Delay: There might be developmental delays, especially in cases where there are associated brain abnormalities.


  • linical Examination: A thorough physical examination by a clinical geneticist, pediatrician, or other specialists can help identify the characteristic physical features associated with BAMS, such as arhinia (absence of nose) and microphthalmia (small eyes).
  • Medical Imaging: Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) scans may be used to assess the structure of the brain, eyes, and other affected areas. These imaging studies can provide valuable information about the extent of abnormalities and guide further evaluation.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing plays a crucial role in confirming the diagnosis of BAMS. This may involve various types of genetic tests, including chromosomal microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing. These tests can help identify specific genetic mutations or abnormalities associated with the syndrome.
  • Family History: Gathering information about the family history can help in understanding whether the syndrome is inherited or occurs sporadically.
  • Differential Diagnosis: Due to the rarity of BAMS and the overlap of certain features with other genetic syndromes, it's important for healthcare providers to consider a range of possible diagnoses and rule out other conditions with similar characteristics.


  1. Calcarea carbonica: This remedy is often associated with slow growth and development. It may be recommended for children who have a tendency to grow and develop at a slower pace compared to their peers. They might also have a tendency towards chubbiness and a preference for routine and stability.
  2. Silicea: This remedy is sometimes used for children who are physically and mentally delicate and experience slow development. It may be recommended for conditions where there are difficulties in assimilating nutrients and building strong bones.
  3. Baryta carbonica: This remedy is considered for delayed physical and mental development, particularly in children who are shy, timid, and lack confidence. It might be suggested for individuals who are slow to learn and interact with others.
  4. Thuja occidentalis: This remedy is sometimes considered when there are growth and developmental issues along with a history of vaccination. It may be recommended for children who show delayed milestones and have a tendency towards sensitivity.
  5. Natrum muriaticum: This remedy might be suggested when slow growth is accompanied by emotional sensitivity and introversion. It's often used for individuals who suppress their emotions and have difficulty connecting with others.
  6. Lycopodium: This remedy is sometimes indicated for children who experience slow growth and development along with digestive issues. It's often recommended for individuals who are intellectually bright but lack self-confidence.