Biliary dyskinesia is a functional disorder that mostly affects your gallbladder. Sometimes it affects the small muscle (sphincter) located where bile from your gallbladder empties into your small intestine. A functional disorder is a problem with the way the organ or muscle functions. (It's different from a mechanical blockage, like a gallstone.)
The main function of your gallbladder is to store bile made by your liver and pass it on to your small intestine to help with digestion. When it’s time to digest, your small intestine signals to your gallbladder through hormones. Your gallbladder contracts to push bile out into the bile ducts that will deliver it to your small intestine.
Biliary dyskinesia is a breakdown in these functions. Somewhere along the way, something isn’t working right. The problem might be related to the hormonal signaling, to the nerves that are supposed to receive the signal or to the muscles that are supposed to react. It's difficult for healthcare providers to tell which it is at first, but they can tell that your gallbladder isn’t ejecting enough bile.
When your gallbladder can’t efficiently move bile out into your bile ducts, the backup of bile causes your gallbladder to become fuller or swollen (distended). This is similar to when there’s a blockage of your gallbladder by a gallstone. The swelling of your gallbladder and the retained bile within it can cause infections, inflammation (cholecystitis) and pain.
You may feel intermittent upper abdominal pain that comes and goes and nausea, especially after eating when your gallbladder tries to contract. This is called biliary colic. In addition, not having enough bile in your intestine can cause abdominal bloating, nausea, vomiting and improper digestion, especially after eating fatty foods.
Conventional wisdom has been that biliary pain is almost always caused by gallstones (cholelithiasis). But healthcare providers are beginning to realize this may not be the case. In fact, biliary dyskinesia is becoming increasingly recognized as a common cause of gallbladder disease. It often affects older children, as well as adults.
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