Angiodysplasia, also known as angioectasia or arteriovenous malformation, refers to a tortuous (twisted) and swollen blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is the most frequent etiology of small bowel bleeding in individuals older than 60 years of age.

 It is a vascular ectasia seen commonly in right side colon. It is commonly seen in elderly of 70 years age. It is acquired malformation of aging.

 It is not common in left side colon. It is often associated with calcified aortic stenosis; and ectasia bleeding if present, stops once aortic stenosis is corrected.

It is common cause of rectal bleed in adults and elderly.

An acquired condition seen in caecum and ascending colon due to degeneration of the mucosal and submucosal vessels of the colon.


  • Upper gi bleed
  • Maleana
  • shortness of breath
  • tiredness
  • weakness
  • pale skin
  • lightheadedness
  • dizziness
  • fast heartbeat


Some of the risk factors associated with angiodysplasia of the GI tract include:

  • chronic kidney disease,
  • aortic stenosis,
  • von Willebrand disease,
  • left ventricular assist devices.


  • Mesenteric angiography
  • early and prolonged filling of draining veins; cluster of small arteries; visualisation of vascular tuft.
  • Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy are common initial diagnostic tools.
  • Radionuclide scanning images.
  • CT angiography and magnetic resonance angiography.


ALUMINA- rectal bleeding due to hard stool. Stools of small balls, hard knots, or bright clots of blood. Great straining for stool. Evacuation preceded by painful urging long before stool and then straining at stool.

AMMONIUM CARB - rectal bleeding due to hemorrhoids , which is worse during menses. Discharge of blood before and after stools. Along with this constipation occurs with hard, dry stools, difficult and knotty.

COLLINSONIA - rectal bleeding due to painful hemorrhoids. Hemorroids, which is chronic , alternating with heart, chest or rheumatic symptoms. A sensation of sharp sticks in rectum.

CROTALUS HORRIDUS-. Bleeding of black blood with black, thin, offensive stools like coffee grounds. Intestinal hemorrhage of dark, fluid, non coagulable blood.

FICUS RELIGIOSA Q—Ficus religiosa is best for rectal bleeding due to piles. The patient is melancholic , hence sensitive to noise. White coated tongue with profuse salivation.

HAMAMELIS Q—Hamamelis is effective for rectal bleeding due to hemorrhoids , which is bleeding profusely with soreness of rectum. Anus feels sore and raw. Large quantities of tar like blood in stools. Bloody dysentery.

LACHESIS - rectal bleeding due to intestinal bleeding. Hemorrhage from bowels like charred straw , black particles.

NITRIC ACID - profuse bleeding of bright red blood during stool. It is also effective for profuse bleeding hemorrhoids. Bleeding from rectum after the removal of hemorrhoids. Violent cutting pain in rectum , which continues many hours after stool

PHOSPHORUS - discharge of blood during stool. Bleeding hemorrhoids. Great weakness after stool.