ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS
Radiation interactions with atoms can result in ionization and free radical formation that damages tissue by disrupting chemical bonds and molecular structures in the cell, including DNA. Radiation can lead to cell death; cells that recover may have DNA mutations that pose a higher risk for malignant transformation. Cell sensitivity to radiation damage increases as replication rate increases. Bone marrow and mucosal surfaces in the GI tract have high mitotic activity and thus are significantly more prone to radiation damage than slowly dividing tissues such as bone and muscle. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can develop following exposure of all or most of the human body to ionizing radiation. The clinical manifestations of ARS reflect the dose and type of radiation as well as the parts of the body that are exposed.
CLINICAL FEATURE: -
ARS produces signs and symptoms related to damage of three major organ systems: GI tract, bone marrow, and neurovascular. The type and dose of radiation and the part of the body exposed will determine the dominant clinical picture.
- There are four major stages of ARS:
- Prodrome occurs between hours to 4 days after exposure and lasts from hours to days. Manifestations include nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and diarrhea.
- The latent stage follows the prodrome and is associated with minimal or no symptoms. It most commonly lasts up to 2 weeks, but can last as long as 6 weeks.
- Illness follows the latent stage.
- Death or recovery is the final stage of ARS.
- The higher the radiation dose, the shorter and more severe the stage.
- At low radiation doses (0.7–4 Gy), bone marrow suppression occurs and constitutes the main illness. The pt may develop bleeding or infection secondary to thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. The bone marrow will generally recover in most pts. Care is supportive (transfusion, antibiotics, colony-stimulating factors).
- With exposure to 6–8 Gy, the clinical picture is more complicated; the bone marrow may not recover and death will ensue. Damage to the GI mucosa producing diarrhea, hemorrhage, sepsis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance may occur and complicate the clinical pictures.
HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT: -
The medicines that can be thought of use are:-