Nephronophthisis is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the kidneys. It is characterized by the progressive degeneration and scarring (fibrosis) of the kidneys' functional units called nephrons. Nephronophthisis is the leading cause of hereditary kidney failure in children and young adults.


  • Genetic Mutations: The majority of NPHP cases are caused by mutations in various genes. These genes are responsible for producing proteins that play important roles in the function of cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures present on the surface of certain cells, including kidney cells. Cilia have sensory and signaling functions, and they are essential for various cellular processes, including maintaining the integrity of kidney tubules.
  • Autosomal Recessive Inheritance: NPHP is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This means that to develop the condition, an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent). If an individual inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they are a carrier and usually do not exhibit symptoms of the condition.
  • Heterogeneity: There are several genes associated with NPHP, and mutations in these genes can lead to different subtypes of the disorder. These subtypes are categorized based on factors such as the age of onset, severity of symptoms, and specific genetic mutations involved.
  • NPHP Genes: Some of the genes known to be associated with NPHP include NPHP1, NPHP2/INVS, NPHP3, NPHP4, NPHP5/SDCCAG8, NPHP6/CEP290, NPHP7/GLIS2, and NPHP8/RPGRIP1L, among others. Mutations in these genes disrupt cilia function and contribute to the development of kidney damage.


  • During childhood or adolescence
  • Excessive thirst (polydipsia)
  • Excessive urination (polyuria)
  • Growth retardation
  • High blood pressure (hypertension).

Diagnosis: Diagnosis involves clinical evaluation, medical history, physical examination, and various imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans to assess the condition of the kidneys. Genetic testing can also help confirm the diagnosis by identifying mutations in the associated genes.


  1. Berberis Vulgaris: This remedy is often used for kidney and bladder-related issues, including kidney stones. Symptoms may include pain or discomfort in the kidney region, soreness, burning sensation during urination, and dark or bloody urine.
  2. Cantharis: It's commonly used for urinary tract infections, cystitis, and inflammation of the urinary bladder. Symptoms may include intense burning pain before, during, and after urination, along with a frequent urge to urinate.
  3. Lycopodium: This remedy is sometimes recommended for kidney-related problems, such as kidney stones or urinary tract issues. Symptoms may include pain in the kidney area, bloating, gas, and a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying.
  4. Sarsaparilla: Often used for kidney stones and urinary issues. Symptoms may include burning pain at the end of urination, sand-like sediment in urine, and pain in the bladder region.
  5. Apis Mellifica: Used for kidney inflammation and swelling. Symptoms may include stinging pain, swelling, and puffiness around the eyes and face.
  6. Solidago: This remedy is associated with kidney and urinary tract health. It might be used to support overall kidney function and reduce symptoms of urinary discomfort.
  7. Terebinthina: Used for kidney and urinary tract infections. Symptoms may include burning pain, bloody urine, and a feeling of pressure in the bladder.