Dwarfism is short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition. Dwarfism is generally defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less. The average adult height among people with dwarfism is 4 feet (122 cm).
Many different medical conditions cause dwarfism. In general, the disorders are divided into two broad categories:
Some people prefer the term "short stature" or "little people" rather than "dwarf" or "dwarfism." So it's important to be sensitive to the preference of someone who has this disorder. Short stature disorders do not include familial short stature — short height that's considered a normal variation with normal bone development.
DISPROPORTIONATE DWARFISM : Most people with dwarfism have disorders that cause disproportionately short stature. Usually, this means that a person has an average-size trunk and very short limbs, but some people may have a very short trunk and shortened (but disproportionately large) limbs. In these disorders, the head is disproportionately large compared with the body.
Almost all people with disproportionate dwarfism have normal intellectual capacities. Rare exceptions are usually the result of a secondary factor, such as excess fluid around the brain (hydrocephalus).
The most common cause of dwarfism is a disorder called Achondroplasia,which causes disproportionately short stature. This disorder usually results in the following:
Another cause of disproportionate dwarfism is a rare disorder called spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC). Signs may include:
Proportionate dwarfism results from medical conditions present at birth or appearing in early childhood that limit overall growth and development. So the head, trunk and limbs are all small, but they are proportionate to each other.Because these disorders affect overall growth,many of them result in poor development of one or more body systems.
Growth hormone deficiency is a relatively common cause of proportionate dwarfism. It occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce an adequate supply of growth hormone,which is essential for normal childhood growth.
Most dwarfism-related conditions are genetic disorders, but the causes of some disorders are unknown. Most occurrences of dwarfism result from a random genetic mutation in either the father's sperm or the mother's egg rather than from either parent's complete genetic makeup.
ACHONDROPLASIA : About 80 percent of people with achondroplasia are born to parents of average height. A person with achondroplasia and with two average-size parents received one mutated copy of the gene associated with the disorder and one normal copy of the gene. A person with the disorder may pass along either a mutated or normal copy to his or her own children.
TURNER SYNDROME : Turner syndrome, a condition that affects only girls and women, results when a sex chromosome (the X chromosome) is missing or partially missing. A female inherits an X chromosome from each parent.A girl with Turner syndrome has only one fully functioning copy of the female sex chromosome rather than two.
GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY : The cause of growth hormone deficiency can sometimes be traced to a genetic mutation or injury, but for most people with the disorder, no cause can be identified.
Complications of dwarfism-related disorders can vary greatly, but some complications are common to a number of conditions.
Disproportionate dwarfism : The characteristic features of the skull, spine and limbs shared by most forms of disproportionate dwarfism result in some common problems:
With proportionate dwarfism,problems in growth and development often result in complications with poorly developed organs.For example,heart problems that often occur with Turner syndrome can have a significant effect on health. An absence of sexual maturation associated with growth hormone deficiency or Turner syndrome affects both physical development and social functioning.
Women with disproportionate dwarfism may develop respiratory problems during pregnancy. A C-section (cesarean delivery) is almost always necessary because the size and shape of the pelvis does not allow for successful vaginal delivery.
Pediatrician will likely examine a number of factors to assess child's growth and determine whether he or she has a dwarfism-related disorder. In some cases,disproportionate dwarfism may be suspected during a prenatal ultrasound if very short limbs disproportionate to the trunk are noted.
Some diagnostic tests may include:
Specialists in our care team may include:
BARYTA CARB : Useful for dwarfism in children with difficulty in speech.Suited to those child who is not reacting well to stranger or change.Helpful when child finds social interaction very challenging.
SILICEA : Best suited to those children who are obstinate, headstrong, cry when spoken kindly.Useful when mental labor is very difficult.Given to those children who is unable to read and write. There is slowness in learning to walk.
CALCAREA PHOS : Recommended to those children who is emaciated.Given when there is inability to stand and slow learning to walk.Useful for weak spine with disposed to curvature,especially to the left.Given when child is unable to support body and head.There is weak neck
Other Medicine: RL-33, RL-45