This occurs in a variety of settings, including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, trauma, nephrotic syndrome (especially membranous nephropathy; see Chap. 152), dehydration (in infants), extrinsic compression of the renal vein (lymph nodes, aortic aneurysm, tumor), and invasion of the renal vein by renal cell carcinoma. Definitive diagnosis is established by selective renal renography. Thrombolytic therapy may be effective. Oral anticoagulants (warfarin) are usually prescribed for longer-term therapy.


Renal vein thrombosis usually results from local and systemic hypercoagulability due to nephrotic syndrome associated with membranous nephropathy (most often), minimal change disease, or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The risk of thrombosis due to nephrotic syndrome appears to be proportional to the severity of the hypoalbuminemia. Overly aggressive diuresis or prolonged high-dose corticosteroid treatment may contribute to thrombosis of the renal vein in patients with these conditions.

Other causes include

  • Allograft rejection
  • Amyloidosis
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Estrogen therapy
  • Pregnancy

Primary hypercoagulability disorders (eg, antithrombin III deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation)

  • Renal vasculitis
  • Sickle cell nephropathy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

Less common causes are related to reduced renal vein blood flow and include malignant renal tumors that extend into the renal veins (typically renal cell carcinoma), extrinsic compression of the renal vein or inferior vena cava (eg, by vascular abnormalities, tumor, retroperitoneal disease, ligation of the inferior vena cava, aortic aneurysm), oral contraceptive use, trauma, dehydration, and, rarely, thrombophlebitis migrans and cocaine abuse.


Usually, onset of renal dysfunction is insidious. However, onset may be acute, causing renal infarction with

  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • flank pain,
  • gross hematuria, and
  • decreased urine output.

When the cause is a hypercoagulability disorder, signs of venous thromboembolic disorders (eg, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) may occur. When the cause is a renal cancer, its signs (eg, hematuria, weight loss) predominate.


Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world.Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When RENAL VEIN THROMBOSIS   is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in Homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.

APIS MELLIFICA- Apis Mellifica is another excellent remedy for DVT with stinging pain ans swelling of legs. The feet swollen and stiff, sore, sensitive with stinging pain. There is also swelling of the knee, which is shiny, sensitive, sore with stinging pain.Legs and feet waxy, pale swollen and edematous. Limbs may feel heavy, numb and immovable. Urine often bloody, milky appearance; very dark and frothy; very fetid; sediment reddish-brown, like coffee grounds.

SECALE CORNUTUM -Secale cor is another excellent remedy for DVT with violent cramps.There is severe cramps in calves. Another stricking feature is icy coldness of limbs. There is numbness and violent pain in legs. Retention, with unsuccessful urging. Discharge of black blood from bladder

VIPERA -Vipera is excellent for DVT due to prolonged sitting. When the legs are allowed to hang down, it seems as if they would burst and the pain is unbearable. The patient is obliged to keep the limbs elevated.There is severe cramps in the lower limbs. The veins are swollen and sensitive due to severe pain.

HAMAMELIS VIRGINICA -Hemamelis is another excellent remedy for DVT with a bursting feeling in the legs. There is tired feeling in legs. Legs swollen with a tense, bursting feeling from pain. The joints also feel tense with pain. Hæmaturia, with increased desire

LACHESIS - Lachesis is another excellent remedy for DVT with joint pain. There is cramps in the calves, especially left side with swelling in the ankles. There is a bluish swelling and pain in joints. The knee joint feel cold as if hot air is going through. urethra, with retention of urine.─Urine turbid and brown, or red, or deep yellow, and sometimes with frequent but scanty emission, or with brown and sandy or red or brick-coloured sediment.