Hypospadias occurs in around 1 in 200–300 male live births and is the most common congenital abnormality of the urethra. There are three characteristic features. The external meatus opens on the underside of the penis anywhere from just short of the normal site as far back as the perineum, while the ventral aspect of the prepuce is poorly developed (the ‘hooded prepuce’) and there is usually a ventral deformity of the erect penis (chordee).
Hypospadias is a birth defect (congenital condition) in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. The urethra is the tube through which urine drains from your bladder and exits your body.
Hypospadias is common and doesn't cause difficulty in caring for your infant. Surgery usually restores the normal appearance of your child's penis. With successful treatment of hypospadias, most males can have normal urination and reproduction.
Hypospadias is present at birth (congenital). As the penis develops in a male fetus, certain hormones stimulate the formation of the urethra and foreskin. Hypospadias results when a malfunction occurs in the action of these hormones, causing the urethra to develop abnormally.
In most cases, the exact cause of hypospadias is unknown. Sometimes, hypospadias is genetic, but environment also may play a role.
In hypospadias, the opening of the urethra is located on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. In most cases, the opening of the urethra is within the head of the penis. Less often, the opening is at the middle or the base of the penis. Rarely, the opening is in or beneath the scrotum.
Signs and symptoms of hypospadias may include:
- Opening of the urethra at a location other than the tip of the penis
- Downward curve of the penis (chordee)
- Hooded appearance of the penis because only the top half of the penis is covered by foreskin
- Abnormal spraying during urination
Although the cause of hypospadias is usually unknown, these factors may be associated with the condition:
- Family history.This condition is more common in infants with a family history of hypospadias.
- Certain gene variations may play a role in disruption of the hormones that stimulate formation of the male genitals.
- Maternal age over 35.Some research suggests that there may be an increased risk of hypospadias in infant males born to women older than 35 years.
- Exposure to certain substances during pregnancy.There is some speculation about an association between hypospadias and a mother's exposure to certain hormones or certain compounds such as pesticides or industrial chemicals, but further studies are needed to confirm this.
If hypospadias is not treated, it can result in:
- Abnormal appearance of the penis
- Problems learning to use a toilet
- Abnormal curvature of the penis with erection
- Problems with impaired ejaculation
Hypospadias is a surgical disease, where the minor cases can be treated with homoeopathic medicines and by massaging. Few medicines are:
CLEMATIS: Tingling in urethra lasting some time after urinating. Frequent, scanty urination; burning at orifice. Interrupted flow. Urethra feels constricted. Urine emitted drop by drop. Inability to pass all the urine; dribbling after urinating. Pain worse at night, pain along the spermatic cord. Commencing stricture.
PRAERIA BRAVA: Constant urging; great straining; pain down thighs during efforts to urinate. Can emit urine only when he goes on his knees, pressing head firmly against the floor. Feeling of the bladder being distended and neuralgic pain in the anterior crural region. (Staph.) Dribbling after micturition. (Selen.) Violent pain in glans penis.
EQUISETUM: Urine flows only drop by drop. Sharp, burning, cutting pain in urethra while urinating.