Gallstones are small, pebble-like substances that develop in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped sac located below our liver in the right upper abdomen. Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens into pieces of stone-like material. The liquid called bile helps the body digest fats. Once bile is made in the liver, then stored in the gallbladder until the body needs it. The gallbladder contracts and pushes the bile into a tube called the common bile duct that carries it to the small intestine, where it helps with digest.
Bile contains water, cholesterol, fats, bile salts, proteins, and bilirubin a waste product. Bile salts break up fat, and bilirubin gives bile and stool a yellowish-brown color. If the liquid bile contains too much cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin, it can harden into gallstones
TYPES OF GALLSTONES
The two types of gallstones are
1. Cholesterol stones :- Cholesterol stones are usually yellow-green and are made primarily of hardened cholesterol. They account for about 80 percent of gallstones-
2. Pigment stones :- Pigment stones are small, dark stones made of bilirubin. Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. The gallbladder can develop just one large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or a combination of the two
Gallstones can block the normal flow of bile if they move from the gallbladder and lodge in any of the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. The ducts include the
- Hepatic ducts, which carry bile out of the liver
- Cystic duct, which takes bile to and from the gallbladder
- Common bile duct, which takes bile from the cystic and hepatic ducts to the small intestine
Bile trapped in these ducts can cause inflammation in the gallbladder, the ducts, or in rare cases, the liver. Other ducts open into the common bile duct, including the pancreatic duct, which carries digestive enzymes out of the pancreas. Sometimes gallstones passing through the common bile duct provoke inflammation in the pancreas called gallstone pancreatitis an extremely painful and potentially dangerous condition
If any of the bile ducts remain blocked for a significant period of time, severe damage or infection can occur in the gallbladder, liver, or pancreas. Left untreated, the condition can be fatal. Warning signs of a serious problem are fever, jaundice, and persistent pain
CAUSES OF GALLSTONES
Scientists believe cholesterol stones form when bile contains too much cholesterol, too much bilirubin, or not enough bile salts, or when the gallbladder does not empty completely or often enough. The reason these imbalances occur is not known
The cause of pigment stones is not fully understood. The stones tend to develop in people who have liver cirrhosis, biliary tract infections, or hereditary blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia in which the liver makes too much bilirubin
The mere presence of gallstones may cause more gallstones to develop. Other factors that contribute to the formation of gallstones, particularly cholesterol stones, include
- Sex. Women are twice as likely as men to develop gallstones. Excess estrogen from pregnancy, hormone replacement therapy, and birth control pills appears to increase cholesterol levels in bile and decrease gallbladder movement, which can lead to gallstones
- Family history. Gallstones often run in families, pointing to a possible genetic link
- Weight. A large clinical study showed that being even moderately overweight increases the risk for developing gallstones. The most likely reason is that the amount of bile salts in bile is reduced, resulting in more cholesterol. Increased cholesterol reduces gallbladder emptying. Obesity is a major risk factor for gallstones, especially in women
- Diet. Diets high in fat and cholesterol and low in fiber increase the risk of gallstones due to increased cholesterol in the bile and reduced gallbladder emptying
- Rapid weight loss. As the body metabolizes fat during prolonged fasting and rapid weight loss such as crash diets the liver secretes extra cholesterol into bile, which can cause gallstones. In addition, the gallbladder does not empty properly
- Ethnicity. American Indians have a genetic predisposition to secrete high levels of cholesterol in bile. In fact, they have the highest rate of gallstones in the United States. The majority of American Indian men have gallstones by age 60. Among the Pima Indians of Arizona, 70 percent of women have gallstones by age 30. Mexican American men and women of all ages also have high rates of gallstones
- Cholesterol-lowering drugs. Drugs that lower cholesterol levels in the blood actually increase the amount of cholesterol secreted into bile. In turn, the risk of gallstones increases
- Diabetes. People with diabetes generally have high levels of fatty acids called triglycerides. These fatty acids may increase the risk of gallstones
RISK FACTOR OF GALLSTONES
People at risk for gallstones include
- Women especially women who are pregnant, use hormone replacement therapy, or take birth control pills
- People over age 60
- American Indians
- Mexican Americans
- Overweight or obese men and women
- People who fast or lose a lot of weight quickly
- People with a family history of gallstones
- People with diabetes
- People who take cholesterol-lowering drugs
SYMPTOMS OF GALLSTONES
As gallstones move into the bile ducts and create blockage, pressure increases in the gallbladder and one or more symptoms may occur. Symptoms of blocked bile ducts are often called a gallbladder attack because they occur suddenly. Gallbladder attacks often follow fatty meals, and they may occur during the night. A typical attack can cause
- Steady pain in the right upper abdomen that increases rapidly and lasts from 30 minutes to several hours
- Pain in the back between the shoulder blades
- pain under the right shoulder
If someone think he\she have experienced a gallbladder attack he/she must notify to their doctor.Although these attacks often pass as gallstones move, our gallbladder can become infected and rupture if a blockage remains.
People with any of the following symptoms should see a doctor immediately
- Prolonged pain more than 5 hours
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever even low-grade or chills
- Yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes
- Clay-colored stools
Many people with gallstones have no symptoms; these gallstones are called silent stones. They do not interfere with gallbladder, liver, or pancreas function and do not need treatment
DIAGNOSIS OF GALLSTONES
Frequently, gallstones are discovered during tests for other health conditions. When gallstones are suspected to be the cause of symptoms, the doctor is likely to do
- an ultrasound exam the most sensitive and specific test for gallstones.
- Computerized tomography (CT) scan. The CT scan is a noninvasive x ray that produces cross-section images of the body. The test may show the gallstones or complications, such as infection and rupture of the gallbladder or bile ducts
- Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan). The patient is injected with a small amount of nonharmful radioactive material that is absorbed by the gallbladder, which is then stimulated to contract. The test is used to diagnose abnormal contraction of the gallbladder or obstruction of the bile ducts
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). ERCP is used to locate and remove stones in the bile ducts.
- Blood tests. Blood tests may be performed to look for signs of infection, obstruction, pancreatitis, or jaundice
HOMEOPATHY TREATMENT OF GALLSTONES
- Calcarea carbonica: Useful for gall stones for those who are anxious and slow, overweight with high deposits of triglycerides and cholesterol.
- Chelidonium: Useful for gallstone when pain is in any or both of the two patterns.Either pain is originating under right shoulder blade or pain appear in the upper right abdomen, which spreads to the back
- Lycopodium: Recommended in case when there is family history of stones in kidney and gall bladder, along with other complications like, chronic digestive disorders, high cholesterol, gastric problems, constipation, peptic ulcers, gas and bloating. Useful when patient may usually get biliary colic late in the afternoon.
- Natrum sulphuricum:Useful for gall stone which may accompanied with chronic diarrhea, gall stone pain, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, obesity and problem in joints.Given to that patient who is too sensitive to changes in humidity and weather.
- Nux vomica:Useful for patient suffers from nausea, colic pains, spasmodic pains, heartburn and acidity, gas and bloating, and takes too much of rich and oily food and drinks.