Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) is defined as vaginal bleeding after the 20th week (third trimester) of pregnancy. I is atssociated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The foetal and maternal status will depend on the amount, duration, and cause of bleeding.
The causes of APH are:
Nonplacental Bleeding: From sites other than the placental surface, including cervical lesions, due to trauma, cancer of the cervix, cervical polyps, vaginal lesions, genital tears/lacerations,infections and vulvoperineal tears (rare).
Placental abruption occurs when the placenta detaches from the endometrium. Detachment causes antepartum haemorrhaging at the location of abruption. Depending on the site of detachment, haemorrhaging may or may not be apparent. If abruption occurs behind the placenta where blood cannot escape through the cervix.
This occurs when any part of the placenta implants in the lower part/segment of the uterus.
Further clinical classification is feasible depending on the relationship to internal cervicaL