Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation ,one or more missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row have amenorrhea, as do girls who haven't begun menstruation by age 15.
TYPES OF AMENORRHEA
1. PRIMARY- Menstruation cycle starts between the ages of 11 to 15 years. If the menstrual periods do not start by the age of 16 yrs then it is primary amenorrhea and medical help should be seeked in such cases.
The causes of primary amenorrhea includes congenital absence of uterus or fallopian tubes, some structural abnormality in female reproductive system, vaginal atresia (in this vagina is abnormally closed or absent), imperforate hymen (normally vagina is surrounded by thin membrane called hymen with a small, opening in the center. In imperforate hymen, opening in this membrane is absent thereby blocking vaginal canal). Other reasons include Turner syndrome (In this women lacks some part or entire of one of the two X chromosome and ovaries are replaced by scar tissue and there is very less production of estrogen), androgen insensitivity, premature ovarian failure and problem of pituitary gland that secretes hormones required for menses.
2. SECONDARY- When regular menstrual periods have started in women but afterwards some time in their life they miss their periods then it is considered a case of secondary amenorrhea. If they miss just one period then it is not a reason for concern. To be diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea a woman must have missed periods for at least three months or more when they usually have regular periods in the past. Other than this it is also diagnosed when a woman having irregular periods doesn’t get a period for around six months.
SYMPTOMS OF AMENORRHOEA
The main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea,
One might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:
- Milky nipple discharge
- Hair loss
- Vision changes
- Excess facial hair
- Pelvic pain
CAUSES OF AMENORRHOEA
Amenorrhea can occur for a variety of reasons. Some are normal during the course of a woman life, while others may be a side effect of medication or a sign of a medical problem.
During the normal course of life,one may experience amenorrhea for natural reasons, such as:
Some women who take birth control pills may not have periods. Even after stopping oral contraceptives, it may take some time before regular ovulation and menstruation return. Contraceptives that are injected or implanted also may cause amenorrhea, as can some types of intrauterine devices.
Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhea, for instance:
- Low body weight - Excessively low body weight about 10 percent under normal weight interrupts many hormonal functions in our body, potentially halting ovulation. Women who have an eating disorder,such as anorexia or bulimia,often stop having periods because of these abnormal hormonal changes.
- Excessive exercise - Women who participate in activities that require rigorous training, such as ballet, may find their menstrual cycles interrupted. Several factors combine to contribute to the loss of periods in athletes, including low body fat, stress and high energy expenditure.
- Stress - Mental stress can temporarily alter the functioning of your hypothalamus an area of our brain that controls the hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle. Ovulation and menstruation may stop as a result. Regular menstrual periods usually resume after your stress decreases.
- HORMONAL - Hormonal changes may also cause amenorrohea
- DISEASE CONDITION - some disease condition may cause amenorrohea ie- PCOD
COMPLICATIONS OF AMENORRHOEA
Complications of amenorrhea may include:
HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT FOR AMENORRHOEA
PULSATILLA : Very -very effective medicine for bringing periods in cases of amenorrhea.Well indicated in females who miss their periods often. There is tendency to get always late periods.There is scanty bleeding of black, clotted ,thin and watery mense.There is milky discharge from nipples along with amenorrhea.Useful for acne from menstrual irregularities.It is a very effective medicine to correct the hormonal imbalance and regularise the periods.
SEPIA : Usefull for those females who have complain of missed periods for many months altogether.Useful for violent pain in the abdomen and pimples before periods.Recommended for sadness before menses.There is violent bearing down pain in pelvis.Also indicated when a female has vaginal discharge in place of menses.Also useful for facial hair in females can also be present with these symptoms.
NATRUM MUR : Very-very beneficial medicine for amenorrhea with hair loss. There is suppressed mense. They appear late but with profuse bleeding.There is thin, watery, pale bleeding.There is headache before and after menses.helps cases where menses are suppressed from grief.
CONIUM : This medicine is helpful for females in whom periods are suppressed and who generally have a tendency of late periods and also that last for a short time. Periods are also scanty in them and sometimes blood is clotted also. Further they may have pain and swelling in the breast during periods. Another complaint that they explain is small red pimples on the body during periods. After periods they have itching in vagina.
IGNATIA : Useful medicine where menses are suppressed from grief.Suited for those females who are sad, depressed with frequent weeping spells.