Obesity is a medical condition where the excess accumulation of body fat takes place. In some people the excess fat has accumulated to such an extent that it may negatively affect the person’s body. Obesity is more common in women than in men.
Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular organizations. The surgical literature breaks down class II and III or only class III obesity into further categories whose exact values are still disputed.
- Any BMI ≥ 35 or 40 kg/m2 is severe obesity.
- A BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2 and experiencing obesity-related health conditions or ≥ 40 or 45 kg/m2 is morbid obesity.
- A BMI of ≥ 45 or 50 kg/m2 is super obesity.
As per BMI (body mass index) obesity are classified into following headings-
18.5 – 24.9
25.0 – 29.9
Obese (class I)
30.0 – 34.9
Obese (class II)
35.0 – 39.9
Obese (class III)
CAUSES OF OBESITY :
- Diet: Excess appetite for palatable, high-calorie food (especially fat, sugar, and certain animal proteins) is seen as the primary factor driving obesity worldwide, likely because of imbalances in neurotransmitters affecting the drive to eat.
- Sedentary life: A sedentary lifestyle may play a significant role in obesity. Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work, and currently at least 30% of the world's population gets insufficient exercise. This is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home.
- Genetics: Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite and metabolism predispose to obesity when sufficient food energy is present.
- Other Illness: Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase risk of obesity. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes as well as some congenital or acquired conditions: hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, and some eating disorders such as binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome. Obesity and depression influence each other mutually, with obesity increasing the risk of clinical depression, and also depression leading to a higher chance of developing obesity.
COMPLICATION OF OBESITY:
- Various complications are seen due to obesity which are as follows:
- Ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and high blood pressure are all examples of cardiological disorders.
- Diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, infertility, birth abnormalities, and intrauterine foetal mortality are all examples of endocrinological and reproductive system disorders.
- Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome are two respiratory conditions.
- Poor mobility, osteoarthritis, low back pain, and gout are all symptoms of musculoskeletal system.
- Stroke, migraines, carpal tunnel syndrome, dementia, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension are all neurological conditions. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects a large number of people.
- Depression, social stigma are psychosocial conditions.
MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY:
- Dietary Management-Diet Control- A well-balanced diet should be provided, with enough protein but low carbohydrate and fat content. Alcohol should be moderately used.
- Physical exercise: It is necessary to promote physical activity.
- Interventions in behavior and psychological counselling.
Homoeopathy has a lot of potential in the treatment of obesity as it is based on concept of DYNAMISM, INDIVIDUALISTIC, AND HOLISTIC philosophy. Homoeopathic philosophy holds that, while an organ may appear to be diseased, the individual as a whole is ill. In addition, the homoeopathic method believes that the body is a constitution that must be treated as a whole. Age, gender, genetic variables, physical inactivity, socioeconomic level, eating habits, psychosocial factors, familial inclination, endocrine factors, alcohol, education, smoking, ethnicity and drugs are all essential contributors in the development of obesity.
Calcarea carbonicum: Calcarea carbonica is particularly effective in overweight and fatty, flabby people who have a pale complexion, sweat a lot, and are cold and damp most of the time. These people have a sour taste in their mouth all of the time. This medication is especially beneficial for overweight children with a pale complexion and a huge bellies.
Phytolacca berry: Patients with difficulties walking, sitting, palpitation, dyspnoea with minimal exertion, nausea, and eructations should take this supplement. Thyroid dysfunction causes obesity. It primarily affects glands. There was a lot of fatigue and a lot of prostration. Obesity with rheumatoid arthritis.
Graphites: Obesity in females with delayed menstruation. Indicated for fair, fat, chilly, constipated people who have skin trouble. Obesity due to hormonal imbalance at menopause
Thyroidinum: In excessive obesity, it acts better in pale patients than those of dark color.
Antimonium crudum: Children and young person with tendency to grow fat with coated moist white tongue. The subject needing this remedy may belch a great deal, and the eructation may taste of the ingesta, Tendency to grow fat associated with gastric ailments. Gout with gastric symptoms
Fucus vesiculosus: Obesity due to non-toxic goitre, as well as exophthalmic goiter.
Natrum muriaticum: Natrum mur is another important medicine for weight loss. This medicine recommended when there is an overabundance of fat in the thighs and gluteal region compared to other portions of the body. This drug works well for people who have acquired weight as a result of long-term grief.
Lycopodium: Lycopodium is one of the most effective homoeopathic fat-burning medicines. Like the above-mentioned drug Natrum Mur, this is mostly utilised when the thighs and gluteal region contain extra fat. However, the constitutional symptoms that are peculiar to Lycopodium use distinguish these two. Patients who require Lycopodium are those who have been suffering from gastric problems such as flatulence and constipation for a long time. They have craving for sweets. They also enjoy warm drinks and food. They have a proclivity for overeating, resulting in a bloated abdomen and increase in weight. Mentally, the individual who requires this medication is impatient and easily angered, especially when they are contradicted.
Ignatia amara: When changeable mood, introspective, silently, brooding, melancholic, sad, tearful is the cause of weight gain, Ignatia works well to help an overweight person to lose weight.
Ferrum metallicum: Obesity with anaemia, bloated face, and paleness. Best suited to young, frail people who are anaemic and chlorotic, have pseudo-plethora, blush easily, have cold extremities, and show signs of weakness even when speaking or walking. Skin, mucous membranes, and face are all pale.
Ammonium muriaticum: This Homeopathic medicine for weight loss is particularly effective for those who are overweight and lethargic, with huge deposition of fat in gluteal region and around the abdomen and thin legs.