Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve.
Optic neuritis can affect your vision and cause pain. When the nerve fibers become inflamed, the optic nerve can also start to swell. This swelling typically affects one eye, but can affect both at the same time.It can affect both adults and children.
The underlying cause isn't completely understood, but it is believing that a viral infection may trigger the immune system to attack the optic nerve.
ITIOLOGY: Optic neuritis is most common among adults 20 to 40 years. Mainly due to demyelinating disease, particularly multiple sclerosis, case.
Optic neuritis is often the presenting manifestation of multiple sclerosis.
- Neuromyelitis optica
- Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease Infectious diseases
- viral encephalitis[particularly in children], sinusitis, meningitis, tuberculosis [TB], syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV])
- Tumor metastasis to the optic nerve
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Chemicals and drugs such as lead. methanol, quinine, arsenic, ethambutol, and antibiotics cause optic neuropathies rather than true optic neuritis.
- TNF-alpha inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause optic neuritis.
- Rare causes pernicious anemia and systemic autoimmune diseases. Often, the cause remains idiopathic despite thorough evaluation.
RISK FACTORS :
- Have a history of multiple sclerosis
- Live in higher altitudes
- Are Caucasian
- Diminished vision
- Trouble distinguishing colors
- Vision that appears blurry
- Inability to see out of one eye
- Abnormal reaction of the pupil when exposed to bright light
- Pain in the eye, especially when you move it
- Evaluation of your eyes
- Testing of visual acuity using the letter chart to see how well you can see
- MRI scan of the brain
- Testing of the ability to differentiate color
PROGNOSIS: Prognosis depends on the underlying condition. Most episodes of typical optic neuritis improve spontaneously with significant recovery of vision in 2 to 3 months. The recurrence rate among patients with optic neuritis is variable and depends on the etiology.
- Physostigma - Dim vision, blurred vision, partial loss of vision and pain in the eyes, photophobia; contraction of pupils; twitching of ocular muscles. Lagophthalmus. Muscæ volitantes; flashes of light; partial blindnessparesis of accommodation. Profuse lachrymation. Spasm of ciliary muscles, with irritability after using eyes.
- Gelsemium – blurred/foggy vision, double vision, pain in the eyes and varying degree of vision loss, Orbital neuralgia, with contraction and twitching of muscles. Bruised pain back of the orbits. One pupil dilated, the other contracted. Deep inflammations, with haziness of vitreous. Serous inflammations.
- Oxalic Acid - Severe pain in eyes; feel expanded
- Conium - Photophobia and excessive lachrymation. Corneal pustules. Dim-sighted; worse, artificial light. On closing eyes, he sweats. Paralysis of ocular muscles.
- Argentum Nitricum – Blurred vision. Photophobia in warm room. Purulent ophthalmia. Great swelling of conjunctiva; discharge abundant and purulent. Chronic ulceration of margin of lids; sore, thick, swollen. Unable to keep eyes fixed steadily
- Alumina – Objects look yellow. Eyes feel cold. Lids dry, burn, smart, thickened, aggravated in morning
- Lathyrus Sativus – Affects the lateral and anterior columns of the cord. Does not produce pain. Reflexes always increased. Paralytic affections of lower extremities; spastic paralysis; lateral sclerosis; After influenza and wasting, exhaustive diseases where there is much weakness and heaviness, slow recovery of nerve power. Sleepy, constant yawning.