Kerato conjunctivitis sicca is chronic, bilateral desiccation of the conjunctiva and cornea due to an inadequate tear film. Symptoms include itching, burning, irritation, and photophobia.
conjunctival and corneal surface epithelial cells need to be hydrated. If there is interruption of a continuous, unbroken layer of tears over the exposed surface, desiccation of surface cells leads to tissue damage and inflammation.
THERE ARE 2 MAIN TYPES:
Aqueous tear: - deficient keratoconjunctivitis sicca is caused by insufficient coverage of the ocular surface by tears due to inadequate tear volume.
Evaporative keratoconjunctivitis sicca (more common) is caused by insufficient coverage of the ocular surface by tears due to accelerated tear evaporation resulting from poor tear quality.
Aqueous tear: - deficient keratoconjunctivitis sicca is most commonly an isolated idiopathic condition in postmenopausal women. It is also commonly part of Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus).
SYMPTOMS OF KERATO CONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA:
Itching; burning; a gritty, pulling, or foreign body sensation; or photosensitivity.
sharp stabbing pain, eye strain or fatigue, and blurred vision may also occur.
Some patients note a flood of tears after severe irritation.
symptoms fluctuate in intensity and are intermittent.
DIAGNOSIS FOR KERATO CONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA:
Schirmer test and tear breakup test (TBUT)
Diagnosis is based on characteristic symptoms and clinical appearance. The Schirmer test and tear breakup time (TBUT) may differentiate type. Both tests are done before instilling drops of any kind.
Findings include conjunctival hyperemia and often scattered, fine, punctate loss of corneal epithelium (superficial punctate keratitis) and conjunctival epithelium.
HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE FOR KERATO CONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA:
BELLADONNA - Belladonna is prescribed for conjunctivitis when the eyes are markedly swollen, red, dry and congested. There is photophobia may also occur.
EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS - Euphrasia is also an excellent remedy for conjunctivitis and it is prescribed where redness and swelling of the eyes is accompanied with discharges. The discharges are acrid, watery and of irritating nature with intensely itchy eyes. There is watery discharge from eyes but the discharge from the nose is bland.
PULSATILLA NIG - Pulsatilla is an excellent remedy for conjunctivitis with mucopurulent discharges. It is specifically used when the eye discharge is thick and greenish color. Burning and itching in the eyes is also prominent. The eyelids seem agglutinated. There is relief from any cold application or washing with cold water. The patient is usually thirstless.
ALLIUM CEPA - Allium Cepa is best for allergic conjunctivitis when the eye discharges are bland with marked sneezing and acrid nasal discharge and eyes suffused and watery. There is much burning and smarting lachrymation. Sensitive to light. Better in open air.
CALCAREA SUPLH - Calcarea Sulph is an excellent medicine when the eye discharges are thick and yellow colored. The eyes are also inflamed with itching and burning.
BORAX -Borax is best for conjunctivitis with agglutinated and sticky eyelids. It is used when the eyelids are loaded with dry exudation, causing the eyelids to stick together. Mainly the agglutination is marked in the morning time.
ARGENTUM NITRICUM - Argentum Nitricum is prescribed when copious mucopurulent eye discharges are present with sticky eyelids. The conjunctiva is markedly red and swollen. There is photophobia or aversion to light. The photophobia is more pronounced in a warm room. Splinter like pains may be felt in the eyes.
APIS MELLIFICA -Apis mel is prescribed for conjunctivitis when severe burning and stinging is present in the eyes.There is lot of edema in and around the eyes. The patient is usually thirstless. All problems are worse from heat in any form, whether in summer weather or going out in the sun.
RUTA GRAVEOLENS —Ruta graveolens is best for conjunctivitis when there is a sensation that there is a foreign body or some dust particles in the eye. There is constant irritation in the eyes and one feels that there is something that has got stuck in the eye. The eyes are red, hot and painful.
EXTERNAL APPLICATION— Euphrasia eye lotion in to the eye 4 times daily, CINERARIA MARITIMA EY DROPS