Hemorrhage from the nose is called epistaxis . commonaly its called nose bleed which is loss of blood from the tissue that lines the inside of the nose
TYPES OF EPISTAXIS
Anterior Epistaxis-It starts in front of the nose on the lower part of the wall that separates the two sides of the nose (called the septum). Capillaries and small blood vessels in this front area of the nose are fragile and can easily break and bleed. This is the most common type of nosebleed and is usually not serious. These nosebleeds are more common in children and are usually able to be treated at home.
Posterior nosebleed -It occurs deep inside the nose. This nosebleed is caused by a bleed in larger blood vessels in the back part of the nose near the throat. This can be a more serious nosebleed than an anterior nosebleed. It can result in heavy bleeding, which may flow down the back of the throat.One may need medical attention right away for this type of nosebleed. This type of nosebleed is more common in adults.
Anyone can get a nosebleed. Most people will have at least one in their lifetime. However, there are people who are more likely to have a nosebleed. They include:
- Children between ages two and 10. Dry air, colds, allergies and sticking fingers and objects into their nose make children more prone to nosebleeds.
- Adults between ages 45 and 65. Blood may take longer to clot in mid-life and older adults. They are also more likely to be taking blood thinning drugs (such as daily aspirin use), have high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the walls of arteries) or a bleeding disorder.
- Pregnant women. Blood vessels in the nose expand while pregnant, which puts more pressure on the delicate blood vessels in the lining of the nose.
- People who take blood-thinning drugs, such as aspirin or warfarin.
- People who have blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.
CAUSES OF EPISTAXIS
Nosebleeds have many causes. Fortunately, most are not serious.
The most common cause of nosebleeds is dry air. Dry air can be caused by hot, low-humidity climates or heated indoor air. Both environments cause the nasal membrane (the delicate tissue inside your nose) to dry out and become crusty or cracked and more likely to bleed when rubbed or picked or when blowing nose.
Other common causes of nosebleeds include:
- Nose picking.
- Colds (upper respiratory infections) and sinusitis, especially episodes that cause repeated sneezing, coughing and nose blowing.
- Blowing nose with force.
- Inserting an object into the nose.
- Injury to the nose and/or face.
- Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal lining).
- Blood-thinning drugs (aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and others).
- Cocaine and other drugs inhaled through the nose.
- Chemical irritants (chemicals in cleaning supplies, chemical fumes at the workplace, other strong odors).
- High altitudes. The air is thinner (lack of oxygen) and drier as the altitude increases.
- Deviated septum (an abnormal shape of the wall that separates the two sides of the nose).
- Frequent use of nasal sprays and medications to treat itchy, runny or stuffy nose. These medications – antihistamines and decongestants – can dry out the nasal membranes.
Other, less common causes of nosebleeds include:
- Alcohol use.
- Bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease or leukemia.
- High blood pressure.
- Facial and nasal surgery.
- Nasal tumors.
- Nasal polyps.
- Immune thrombocytopenia.
- Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
PREVENTION OF EPISTAXIS
Follow these steps to stop a nosebleed
- Sit upright and lean body and head slightly forward. This will keep the blood from running down to throat, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. (Do NOT lay flat or put head between the legs.)
- Breathe through mouth.
- Use a tissue or damp washcloth to catch the blood.
- Use thumb and index finger to pinch together the soft part of nose. Make sure to pinch the soft part of the nose against the hard bony ridge that forms the bridge of the nose. Squeezing at or above the bony part of the nose will not put pressure where it can help stop the bleeding.
- Keep pinching nose continuously for at least 5 minutes (timed by clock) before checking if the bleeding has stopped. If nose is still bleeding, continue squeezing the nose for another 10 minutes.
- keep cold water on head, e.t.c
Useful for epistaxis when bleeding in patients occur after an injury, fit of coughing.There is sore,lamed,bruised feeling in patients with sudden epistaxis. This medicine has marked effect on blood vessels.
Useful for epistaxis in patients coming on from activities like after washing face and after eating.Given to those children with sudden stoppage of breathing from nose with snuffles.Helpful for bloody nasal discharge.
Useful for epistaxis when there is bleeding from the nose instead of menses.Useful for small hemorrhages which are bright red and profuse.Recommended fo nasal polyps which bleed frequently.
Useful for epistaxis with acrid,excoriating discharges from the nose. Very useful for nose bleed in children with constant picking and boring till it bleeds.
Very helpful medicine for epistaxis with bright red bleeding and profuse in character.