A patient presents with a painful, red, tender and hard vein. This may be a case of Thrombophlebitis.
Thrombophlebitis is secondary to inflammation of the walls of the vein. This inflammation may be due to trauma, infection or it can be idiopathic. It is often produced during the treatment of varicose veins with a series of injections. Different veins may be affected from time to time called Thrombophlebitis migrant.
Superficial thrombophlebitis signs and symptoms include:
- Warmth, tenderness and pain in the affected area
- Redness and swelling
Deep vein thrombosis signs and symptoms include:
When a vein close to the surface of the skin is affected, then a red, hard cord just under the surface of skin apear that's tender to the touch. When a deep vein in the leg is affected, leg may become swollen, tender and painful.
The cause of thrombophlebitis is a blood clot, which can form in blood as a result of:
- An injury to a vein
- An inherited blood-clotting disorder
- Being immobile for long periods, such as during an injury or a hospital stay
Your risk of thrombophlebitis increases if you:
- Are inactive for a prolonged period, either because you're confined to bed or you're traveling in a car or plane for a long period
- Have varicose veins, which are a common cause of superficial thrombophlebitis
- Have a pacemaker or have a thin, flexible tube (catheter) in a central vein, for treatment of a medical condition, which may irritate the blood vessel wall and decrease blood flow
- Are pregnant or have just given birth
- Use birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy, which can make your blood more likely to clot
- Have a family history of a blood-clotting disorder or a tendency to form blood clots
- Have had previous episodes of thrombophlebitis
- Have had a stroke
- Are older than 60
- Are overweight or obese
- Have cancer
If you have one or more risk factors, discuss prevention strategies with your doctor before taking long flights or road trips or if you're planning to have elective surgery, recovery from which will require you not to move much.
Complications from superficial thrombophlebitis are rare. However, if you develop DVT, the risk of serious complications increases. Complications might include:
- Pulmonary embolism. If part of a deep vein clot becomes dislodged, it can travel to your lungs, where it can block an artery (embolism) and become potentially life-threatening.
- Post-phlebetic syndrome. This condition, also known as post-thrombotic syndrome, can develop months or even years after you've had DVT. Post-phlebetic syndrome can cause lasting and possibly disabling pain, swelling, and a feeling of heaviness in the affected leg.
Sitting during a long flight or car ride can cause your ankles and calves to swell and increases your risk of thrombophlebitis. To help prevent a blood clot:
- Take a walk. If you're flying or riding a train or bus, walk up and down the aisle once an hour or so. If you're driving, stop every hour or so and move around.
- Move your legs regularly. Flex your ankles, or carefully press your feet against the floor or footrest in front of you at least 10 times each hour.
- Drink plenty of water or other nonalcoholic fluids to avoid dehydration.
The affected part should be rested. Local support, wherever possible should be given through pads and adhesive bandages.
Apis mellifica has swelling and puffiness over the affected site, with stinging, burning pains. The skin becomes rosy red, sensitive and sore. A large urticarial rash may develop around the affected site. Generally there is aggravation in the afternoon. The patient is better with cold application and in cool air; worse touch, pressure and after sleep.
Bothrops lanceolatus is yellow viper venom which cause coagulation of blood very fast. Thus, this remedy is found very useful in the treatment of thrombosis and thrombotic disorders. Tendency to dark, fluid haemorrhages from very outlet o the body; tendency to form blood clots.
Flouricum acidum suits the complaints of old age or prematurely aged with a weak constitution. Dropsy of the lower extremities during old age. Being an antisyphilitic remedy, it is most destructive in action. All complaints are aggravated by heat.