Patient presents with a history of sudden chest pain. Similar in character to exertional angina pectoric, but it has occurred during rest and has remained for quite some time now. There is also restlessness, occasional vomiting and sweating. The condition is MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Usually, there are no abnormal physical signs unless any complication develops. There may be hypotension initially and sinus tachycardia may develop. Diabetics, hypertensive and elderly patients have silent myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarctions may go unnoticed or may produce hypotension, breathlessness or arrhythmia.
The classic symptoms of a heart attack are chest pain and shortness of breath, the symptoms can be quite varied. The most common symptoms of a heart attack include:
It’s important to note that not all people who have heart attacks experience the same symptoms or the same severity of symptoms. Chest pain is the most commonly reported symptom among both women and men. However, women are more likely than men to have:
In fact, some women who have had a heart attack report that their symptoms felt like the symptoms of the flu.
Your heart is the main organ in your cardiovascular system, which also includes different types of blood vessels. Some of the most important vessels are the arteries. They take oxygen-rich blood to your body and all of your organs. The coronary arteries take oxygen rich blood specifically to your heart muscle. When these arteries become blocked or narrowed due to a buildup of plaque, the blood flow to your heart can decrease significantly or stop completely. This can cause a heart attack. Several factors may lead to a blockage in the coronary arteries.
Bad cholesterol : Bad cholesterol, also called low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is one of the leading causes of a blockage in the arteries. Cholesterol is a colorless substance that’s found in the food you eat. Your body also makes it naturally. Not all cholesterol is bad, but LDL cholesterol can stick to the walls of your arteries and produce plaque. Plaque is a hard substance that blocks blood flow in the arteries. Blood platelets, which help the blood to clot, may stick to the plaque and build up over time.
Saturated fats : Saturated fats may also contribute to the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries. Saturated fats are found mostly in meat and dairy products, including beef, butter, and cheese. These fats may lead to an arterial blockage by increasing the amount of bad cholesterol in your blood system and reducing the amount of good cholesterol.
Trans fat : Another type of fat that contributes to clogged arteries is trans fat, or hydrogenated fat. Trans fat is usually artificially produced and can be found in a variety of processed foods. Trans fat is typically listed on food labels as hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated oil.
Certain factors may increase your risk of having a heart attack.
High blood pressure : You’re at greater risk for heart attack if you have high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) depending on your age. As the numbers increase, so does your risk of developing heart problems. Having high blood pressure damages your arteries and accelerates the buildup of plaque.
High cholesterol levels : Having high levels of cholesterol in your blood puts you at risk for acute myocardial infarction. You may be able to lower your cholesterol by making changes to your diet or by taking certain medications called statins.
High triglyceride levels : High triglyceride levels also increase your risk for having a heart attack. Triglycerides are a type of fat that clog up your arteries. Triglycerides from the food you eat travel through your blood until they’re stored in your body, typically in your fat cells. However, some triglycerides may remain in your arteries and contribute to the buildup of plaque.
Diabetes and high blood sugar levels : Diabetes is a condition that causes blood sugar, or glucose, levels to rise. High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and eventually lead to coronary artery disease. This is a serious health condition that can trigger heart attacks in some people.
Obesity : Your chances of having a heart attack are higher if you’re very overweight. Obesity is associated with various conditions that increase the risk of heart attack, including:
Smoking : Smoking tobacco products increases your risk for heart attack. It may also lead to other cardiovascular conditions and diseases.
Age : The risk of having a heart attack increases with age. Men are at a higher risk of a heart attack after age 45, and women are at a higher risk of a heart attack after age 55.
Family history : You’re more likely to have a heart attack if you have a family history of early heart disease. Your risk is especially high if you have male family members who developed heart disease before age 55 or if you have female family members who developed heart disease before age 65.
Other factors that can increase your risk for heart attack include:
Pain is the primary symptom that may need immediate attention. Lethat arrhythmias may occur. This needs special care and attention. Lethal arrhythmias may occur. This needs special care and attention. Therefore it is always advisable to admit the patient in a coronary care unit of a hospital as soon as possible. The emergency department must have the staff and facilities to provide the treatment required within the first few hours.
Before the patient is transported to the hospital one can prescribe.
Morphinum It may take care of the restlessness, hyperaesthesia, trembling, twitching and jerking of limbs. The patient becomes extremely susceptible to pain. Which is the pathogenesis of this drug.
Arsenicum album is another restless remedy that comes into the picture, particularly when there is anxiety and a constant fear of death. As the infare progresses, it may develop arrhythmias, either bradycardia or tachycardia. Ventricular extra systoles are common. Ventricular fibrillation may follow.
Digitalis purpurea is a good remedy where there is slow, irregular and intermittent pulse with dropsy of the internal and external parts. There is weakness and dilatation of the myocardium. The pulse is slow in the recumbent posture but irregular and dicrotic in the sitting posture. The greatest indication of digitalis purpurea is when auricular fibrillation has set in and there is failure of compensation. There is coldness of skin, irregular respiration and a bluish appearance of the face. Constant pain or anguish in region of heart hypertrophy and dilatation of heart.
Ignatia amara has dull or stitching pains, palpitation and breathlessness on slightest exertion. The pulse is full, irregular and intermittent. Slightest exertion, laugh or cough aggravates the situation. Patient wakes up in the morning at 2 am with tachycardia. The concomitant symptom of heat and fullness in the head and neck. There is an excessively nervous and frightened condition with cold hands and feet that is frequently found associated with the heart condition.