The metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome, syndrome X) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; it consists of a constellation of metabolic abnormalities that includes central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies among ethnic groups; it increases with age, degree of obesity and propensity to type 2 diabetes.


Overweight/obesity (especially central adiposity), sedentary lifestyle, increasing age, and lipodystrophy are all risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. The exact cause is not known and may be multifactorial. Insulin resistance is central to the development of the metabolic syndrome. Increased intracellular fatty acid metabolites contribute to insulin resistance by impairing insulin-signaling pathways and accumulating as triglycerides in skeletal and cardiac muscle, while stimulating hepatic glucose and triglyceride production. Excess adipose tissue leads to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. 


There are no specific symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The major features include central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. Associated conditions include cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hyperuricemia/gout, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnoea.


While the bad news is that metabolic syndrome is on the rise with changing lifestyles, the good news is that with some planning and effort, it can be prevented and severity reduced. It requires discipline, commitment, and dedication.

  1. Diet: Eating healthy with more of whole grains, less of red meat, loads of fresh fruits and vegetables, omega-3 fatty acids, and a heart-healthy diet can go a long way in managing the metabolism.
  2. Exercise: Regular moderate exercise can help avoid accumulation of fat and burn the extra calories consumed.
  3. Smoking: One should quit smoking, as it can help in many ways and helps in managing the body’s metabolism is one of them.
  4. Alcohol: Avoid consuming excessive alcohol as it helps in managing body’s metabolism.
  5. Stress management: Finding good ways to manage stress (be it music, meditation, yoga, or exercise) can help control harmful ways of stress management like drinking alcohol and smoking.


CALCAREA CARB.: Leucophlegmatic, blond hair, light complexion, blue eyes, fair skin; tendency to obesity in youth. Psoric constitutions; pale, weak, timid, easily tired when walking. Disposed to grow fat, corpulent, unwieldly. with menses scanty or suppressed. Women: menses too early, too profuse; feet habitually cold and damp, as if they had on cold damp stockings; continually cold in bed. Women disposed to hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia, and hypertension.

LYCOPODIUM: For persons intellectually keen, but physically weak; upper part of body emaciated, lower part semi-dropsical; predisposed to lung and hepatic affections (Cal., Phos., Sulph.); especially the extremes of life, children and old people. Deep-seated, progressive, chronic diseases. Pains: aching-pressure, drawing; chiefly right sided, < four to eight P.M. Affects right side, or pain goes from right to left; throat, chest, abdomen, liver, ovaries. Women disposed to suffering from hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia, and hypertension.

BARYTA CARB.: Dwarfish, hysterical women and old maids with scanty menses; deficient heat, always cold and chilly. Old, cachetic people; scrofulous, especially when fat; or those who suffer from gouty complaints. Women effected with hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia, and hypertension.