An aneurysm is a localized dilatation of an artery. the most importent ones to be considered are aneurism of the aorta. they may occur at any part of it.
An aneurysm refers to a weakening of an artery wall that creates a bulge, or distention, of the artery.
Most aneurysms do not show symptoms and are not dangerous. However, at their most severe stage, some can rupture, leading to life-threatening internal bleeding.
The rupture of an aneurysm can be fatal.
Aneurysms are classified by their location in the body. The arteries of the brain and heart are the two most common sites of a serious aneurysm.
The bulge can take two main shapes:
The risk of rupture depends on the size of the bulge.
The aorta is the large artery that begins at the left ventricle of the heart and passes through the chest and abdominal cavities. The normal diameter of the aorta is between 2 and 3 centimeters (cm) but can bulge to beyond 5 cm with an aneurysm.
The most common aneurysm of the aorta is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This occurs in the part of the aorta that runs through the abdomen. Without surgery, the annual survival rate for an AAA of over 6 cm is 20 percent.
Aneurysms of the arteries that supply the brain with blood are known as intracranial aneurysms. Due to their appearance, they are also known as “berry” aneurysms.
A ruptured aneurysm of the brain can be fatal within 24 hours. Forty percent of brain aneurysms are fatal, and around 66 percent of those who survive will experience a resulting neurological impairment or disability.
Ruptured cerebral aneurysms are the most common cause of a type of stroke known as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
An aneurysm can also occur in a peripheral artery. Types of peripheral aneurysm include:
Peripheral aneurysms are less likely to rupture than aortic aneurysms.
Most aneurysms are clinically silent. Symptoms do not usually occur unless an aneurysm ruptures.
However, an unruptured aneurysm may still obstruct circulation to other tissues. They can also form blood clots that may go on to obstruct smaller blood vessels. This is a condition known as thromboembolism. It can lead to ischemic stroke or other serious complications.
Aneurysms are generally symptomless, but their complications can cause severe chest pain.
Rapidly growing abdominal aneurysms are sometimes associated with symptoms. Some people with abdominal aneurysms report abdominal pain, lower back pain, or a pulsating sensation in the abdomen.
Similarly, thoracic aneurysms can affect nearby nerves and other blood vessels, potentially causing swallowing and breathing difficulties, and pain in the jaw, chest, and upper back.
Symptoms can also relate to the cause of an aneurysm rather than the aneurysm itself. For example, in the case of an aneurysm caused by vasculitis, or blood vessel inflammation, a person may experience fever, malaise, or weight loss.
The first signs of a previously undetected aneurysm could be complications upon rupture. Symptoms tend to result from a rupture rather than the aneurysm alone.
Most people living with an aneurysm do not experience any complications. However, in addition to thromboembolism and rupture of the aorta, complications can include:
Any rupture of an aneurysm may cause pain, low blood pressure, a rapid heart rate, and lightheadedness. Most people with an aneurysm will not experience any complications.
An aneurysm can happen in any part of the body. Blood pressure can more easily distend a weakened arterial wall.
Further research is necessary to confirm why an artery wall weakens to cause an aneurysm. Some aneurysms, though less common, are present from birth as an arterial defect.
Aortic dissection is one identifiable cause of an aortic aneurysm. The arterial wall has three layers. Blood can burst through a tear in the weakened wall of the artery, splitting these layers. It can then fill the cavity surrounding the heart.
If the tear occurs on the innermost layer of the arterial wall, blood channels into and weakens the wall, increasing the risk of rupture.
People with aortic dissection often describe abrupt and excruciating chest pain. This pain can travel as the dissection progresses along the aorta. It may, for example, radiate to the back.
Dissection leads to compression. Compression prevents blood from returning to the heart. This is also known as a pericardial tamponade.
There are some lifestyle choices and physical characteristics that can increase the chance of an aneurysm.
Smoking is by far the most common risk factor, especially in cases of AAA. Tobacco use has been shown not only to increase cardiovascular disease and the risk of an aneurysm but also increase the risk of rupture once an aneurysm has taken effect.
Preventing an aneurysm is not always possible, as some are congenital, meaning they are present from birth.
However, some lifestyle choices can affect the risk:
Smoking is a risk factor for both aortic aneurysms and the rupture of an aneurysm anywhere in the body. Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of a severe aneurysm.
Managing blood pressure can also minimize the risk of an aneurysm. Healthful blood pressure can be achieved through dietary measures, regular exercise, and medications.
Obesity can put extra pressure on the heart, so taking these steps is important for reducing stress on the artery walls.
A healthful diet can also reduce cholesterol and decrease the risk of atherosclerosis. Fusiform aneurysms are often linked to atherosclerosis.
Anyone diagnosed with an aneurysm and prescribed a conservative treatment plan can work with a healthcare practitioner to address any risk factors.
Veratrum viride : This drug has the power of reducing the pulse rate when given in five-drop doses of the tincture every three hours.
Gallicum acidum : In one half drachm doses, three times a day, has cured in a few cases.
Ergotinum : This has been used with a degree of success in aneurysm. When used it has been injected around the tumour.
Baryta muriatica : This remedy and the other preparations of baryta are reported to have cured cases of aneurysm. In their proving they have developed palpitation, dyspnoea, oppression with irregular and forcible action of the heart.e.tc