It is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in lower abdomen that stores urine.
Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of bladder. Urothelial cells are also found in kidneys and the tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys to the bladder. Urothelial cancer can happen in the kidneys and ureters, too, but it's much more common in the bladder.
Most bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is highly treatable. But even early-stage bladder cancers can come back after successful treatment. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs.
SYMPTOMS OF BLADDER CANCER
Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include:
- Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test
- Frequent urination
- Painful urination
- Back pain
CAUSES OF BLADDER CANCER
Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to multiply rapidly and to go on living when healthy cells would die. The abnormal cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy normal body tissue. In time, the abnormal cells can break away and spread (metastasize) through the body.
TYPES OF BLADDER CANCER
Different types of cells in your bladder can become cancerous. The type of bladder cell where cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. Doctors use this information to determine which treatments may work .
Types of bladder cancer include:
- Urothelial carcinoma : Urothelial carcinoma, previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty. These same cells line the inside of the ureters and the urethra, and cancers can form in those places as well. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer in the United States.
- Squamous cell carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder — for instance, from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is rare in the United States. It's more common in parts of the world where a certain parasitic infection (schistosomiasis) is a common cause of bladder infections.
- Adenocarcinoma : Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make up mucus-secreting glands in the bladder. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is very rare.
RISK FACTORS OF BLADDER CANCER
Factors that may increase bladder cancer risk include:
- Smoking : Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes may increase the risk of bladder cancer by causing harmful chemicals to accumulate in the urine. When you smoke, your body processes the chemicals in the smoke and excretes some of them in your urine. These harmful chemicals may damage the lining of bladder, which can increase the risk of cancer.
- Increasing age : Bladder cancer risk increases as age. Though it can occur at any age, most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are older than 55.
- Being male : Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are.
- Exposure to certain chemicals : kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from bloodstream and moving them into bladder. Because of this, it's thought that being around certain chemicals may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Chemicals linked to bladder cancer risk include arsenic and chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products.
- Previous cancer treatment : Treatment with the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide increases the risk of bladder cancer. People who received radiation treatments aimed at the pelvis for a previous cancer have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer.
- Chronic bladder inflammation : Chronic or repeated urinary infections or inflammations (cystitis), such as might happen with long-term use of a urinary catheter, may increase the risk of a squamous cell bladder cancer. In some areas of the world, squamous cell carcinoma is linked to chronic bladder inflammation caused by the parasitic infection known as schistosomiasis.
- Personal or family history of cancer : If some one had bladder cancer, they are more likely to get it again. If one of blood relatives — a parent, sibling or child — has a history of bladder cancer, may an increased risk of the disease, although it's rare for bladder cancer to run in families. A family history of Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), can increase the risk of cancer in the urinary system, as well as in the colon, uterus, ovaries and other organs.
PREVENTION OF BLADDER CANCER
- Do not smoke.
- Take caution around chemicals.
- Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables.
HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE FOR BLADDER CANCER
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. Bladder cancer symptoms treatment that can be selected on the basis of cause, location, sensation, modalities and extension of the complaints. Some important remedies are given below for Bladder cancer symptoms treatment:
- Crotalus horridus
- Calcarea flour
- Sabal serrulata
- Berberis volgaris
- Thuja ,e.t.c
Or As Directed by Physician.